BilderbergGroupHistory1


An in depth look at The Biderberg Group and the New World Order


Barrick Gold, JP Morgan Chase Sued for Gold Fraud
    by BLANCHARD & CO.

Barrick Gold, JP Morgan Chase Sued for Gold Fraud NEW ORLEANS, La. -- An anti-trust lawsuit filed today accuses
Barrick Gold Corp., Toronto, and J.P. Morgan Chase & Co.,
New York City, of "unlawfully combining to actively manipulate
the price of gold" and making (US)$2 billion in short-selling
profits by suppressing the price of gold at the expense of
individual investors.

The suit was filed by Blanchard and Co. Inc. of New Orleans,
the largest retail dealer in physical gold in the United States,
and by Blanchard clients who bought gold bullion. Blanchard
(www.blanchardonline.com) is paying the costs of the suit,
which asks the federal court to terminate the trading
agreements between Barrick and J.P. Morgan Chase and
other, as yet unnamed bullion banks. Blanchard believes
its clients have suffered substantial losses as a result of
Barrick's and J.P. Morgan Chase's unlawful price
manipulation, anti-trust violations and unfair trade practices.

"Since the end of 1987, when the collaboration between
Barrick and J.

Gold Market Fraud Lawsuit Survives Hearing
    by CHRIS POWELL (www.gata.org)

The case of Howe vs. Bank for International
Settlements et al. -- I like to call it Howe
vs. All the Money in the World -- was roughed
up a little today but survived its first day
of hearing in federal court in Boston.

During 2 1/2 hours of oral argument, U.S.
District Judge Reginald C. Lindsay dismissed
two counts of the lawsuit involving securities
fraud charges against defendant J.P.
Morgan/Chase, and ruled that the plaintiff's
method of serving lawsuit notice papers against
the BIS -- by mail in English instead of by
personal service in German -- was insufficient.

But the two dismissed securities fraud counts
were secondary to the lawsuit's substance, and
the problem with the lawsuit notice probably
can be fixed by a pricey translator if the
lawsuit is allowed to proceed.

The judge took the remainder of the case back
to his chambers for drafting a written
decision on the plaintiffs' motions to dismiss
the rest of the lawsuit.

The Carlyle-Calpers Scam
    by BOB CHAPMAN

Carlyle Group was formed in 1986 by three front men for the elitists: David Rubenstein, William Conway and Daniel D'Aniello, who have been together in the operation since the beginning.

Carlyle has 495 employees in 21 offices in 11 countries and has invested $6.6 billion. They currently have $6.9 billion yet to invest. They have made over 240 transactions since inception.

They have as esteemed members Frank Carlucci, former Secretary of Defense, ex-President Bush, his Secretary of State James Baker III, and John Major, the former United Kingdom Prime Minister.

Carlyle has returned 3.3 times invested capital last year through an IPO of United Defense Industries and they still retain a 47% interest valued at 2.7 times invested capital.

Overall they have returned an annualized 36% on realized corporate investments and 59% on realized real estate.

The reason we bring the research to you is two-fold. First, to show you how powerful Carlyle is lying at the center of the elitist universe and secondly, to bring your attention to a 5.

Other Top Stories

Who Built the Moon? by CHRISTOPHER KNIGHT (NEW DAWN MAGAZINE)
Lakota Nation Launches Private Bank by FREE LAKOTA BANK
Barrick Gold, JP Morgan Chase Sued for Gold Fraud by BLANCHARD & CO.
The Carlyle-Calpers Scam by BOB CHAPMAN
Gold Market Fraud Lawsuit Survives Hearing by CHRIS POWELL (www.gata.org)
GATA Challenges BIll O"Reilly on Gold Scam by BUSINESS WIRE


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ZbigniewBrzezinski_StunninglySuperficial






Secret_Societies_on_the_History_Channel___5_of_5





Secret_Societies__The_Bilderberg Group






Underground video of Tyranny in China







David Ike speaking  about the history of the Bilderberg Group





Bilderberg exposed part 1





Bilderberg_member_caught_on_tape





Everything_you_have_ever_learned_is_a_Lie



Bilderberg Group History Part one

Go to
http://www.inlnews.com/BilderbergGroupHistory.html


for more videos on the history of the Bilderberg Group

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Click here to hear David Ike talking about the History of
the Bilderberg Group and the Illuminati, Kights Templars and the Scottish Rite Freemasonary



Click here to hear Author Daniel Pipes talk about his book Conspiricies investigates Secret Societies like
the Freemasons, The Trilateral Commission, The Council on Foreigh Relations and the Bilderberg Group




http://www.inlnews.com/uploads/History_Channel_-_secret_societies_-_part_1.wmv



Author David Icke investigates Secret Societies like the Fremans, The Trilateral Commission, The Council on Foreigh Relations and the Bilderberg Group





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Bernanke meeting with United States President Barack Obama.
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With his predecessor, Alan Greenspan, looking on, Chairman Ben Bernanke addresses President George W. Bush and others after being sworn in to the Federal Reserve post. Also on stage with the President are Mrs. Anna Bernanke and Roger W. Ferguson, Jr., Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve.

Ben Shalom Bernanke caught on camera arriving at a Bilderberg Meeting.
Ben Shalom Bernanke (pronounced /b?r'nænki/ b?r-NAN-kee; born December 13, 1953) is an Americaneconomist, and the current Chairman of the United States Federal Reserve. Bernanke, a Republican who was appointed by President George W. Bush in October 2005 and who had briefly served as chairman of President Bush’s Council of Economic Advisers, succeeded Alan Greenspan on February 1, 2006. He was nominated for a second term by President Barack Obama in 2009 as the Chairman of the Federal Reserve

Born in Augusta, Georgia, Bernanke was raised in a ranch-style house on East Jefferson Street in Dillon, South Carolina. His father Philip was a pharmacist and part-time theater manager, and his mother Edna was an elementary schoolteacher, although she gave it up once Ben was born.  He is the eldest of three children, having a brother and sister. His younger brother, Seth, is a lawyer in Charlotte, North Carolina, and his younger sister, Sharon, is a longtime administrator at Berklee College of Music in Boston. The Bernankes were one of the few Jewish families in the area, attending a local synagogue called Ohav Shalom;  as a child, Bernanke learned Hebrew from his maternal grandfather Harold Friedman, who was a professional hazzan, shochet, and Hebrew teacher. His father and uncle co-owned and managed a drugstore that they bought from his paternal grandfather, Jonas Bernanke. Jonas was born in Boryslav, Austria–Hungary (today part of Ukraine), on January 23, 1891, and immigrated to the United States from Przemysl, Poland (part of Austria–Hungary until 1919). He arrived atEllis Island, age 30, Thursday, June 30, 1921, with his wife Pauline, age 25. On the ship’s manifest, Jonas’ occupation is listed as “clerk” and Pauline’s as “doctor med." They moved to Dillon, South Carolina, from New York in the 1940s. Bernanke’s mother often worked in the family drugstore, having given up her job as a school teacher when her son was born, and Bernanke also assisted from time to time. As a teenager in the 1960s in the small town of Dillon, S.C., Bernanke used to help roll the Torah scrolls in his localsynagogue. Although he keeps his beliefs private, his friend Mark Gertler, chairman of New York University’s economics department, commented in 2005 that, "it is really embedded in who he (Bernanke) is".On the other hand, the Bernanke family was concerned that Ben would "lose his Jewish identity" if he went to Harvard. Fellow Dillon nativeKenneth Manning, an African-American who would eventually become a professor of the History of Sciences at M.I.T, helped assuage the family that "there were Jews in Boston." Once at Harvard, Manning took Bernanke to a Rosh Hashanah services in Brookline his freshman year. Unfortunately, Manning found the services more meaningful than Bernanke.Bernanke was educated at East Elementary, J. V. Martin Junior High, and Dillon High School, where he was class valedictorian and played saxophone in the marching band. Bernanke achieved a near-perfect SAT score of 1590 out of 1600. He was also an All-State saxophonist, playing in the school’s marching band.Bernanke spent his undergraduate years at Harvard University where he lived in Winthrop House and graduated with a B.A. in economics summa cum laude in 1975. He received his Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1979. His thesis was named "Long-term commitments, dynamic optimization, and the business cycle" and his thesis adviser was Stanley Fischer. He also taught himself calculus in high school. Bernanke worked construction on a new hospital and waited tables at a restaurant at nearby South of the Border, a roadside attraction in his hometown of Dillon, before leaving for college. During the summer, he attended Camp Ramah located in New England. To support himself throughout college, he worked during the summers at South of the Border.

Bernanke taught at the Stanford Graduate School of Business from 1979 until 1985, was a visiting professor at New York University and went on to become a tenured professor at Princeton University in the Department of Economics. He chaired that department from 1996 until September 2002, when he went on public service leave. He resigned his position at Princeton July 1, 2005. Dr. Bernanke served as a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from 2002 to 2005, and was Chairman of the President's Council of Economic Advisers, from June 2005 to January 2006. On February 1, 2006, he was appointed as a member of the Board for a fourteen-year term and to a four-year term as Chairman.[23]

In one of his first speeches, entitled “Deflation: Making Sure It Doesn’t Happen Here,” he outlined what has been referred to as the Bernanke Doctrine.

In view of his current position as Fed chair, Bernanke also sits on the newly established Financial Stability Oversight Board that oversees the Troubled Asset Relief Program.

Bernanke’s future as Federal Reserve chairman became uncertain on November 21, 2008, when it was announced thatPresident-elect Barack Obama would name Tim Geithner as Treasury Secretary over Lawrence Summers, leading to speculation that Obama was positioning Summers as Bernanke's successor. Summers was picked to run the National Economic Council. Two Obama advisers said that Summers would be the leading candidate to become the next Federal Reserve chairman should President Obama choose not to reappoint Bernanke when his term ends January 31, 2010. White House sources announced on August 24, 2009 that President Obama would nominate Bernanke for another term in 2010. During Bernanke's first term as Chairman, he oversaw the Federal Reserve's largest increase of power since the bank's creation in 1913.

Allegations of fraud against Bernanke concerning Merrill Lynch merger with Bank Of America

In a letter to Congress from New York State Attorney General Andrew Cuomo dated April 23, 2009, Bernanke was mentioned along with former Treasury SecretaryHenry Paulson in allegations of fraud concerning the acquisition of Merrill Lynch by Bank of America. The letter alleged that the extent of the losses at Merrill Lynch were not disclosed to Bank of America by Bernanke and Paulson. When Bank of America CEO Kenneth Lewis informed Paulson that Bank of America was exiting the merger by invoking the "Materially Adverse Change" clause Paulson immediately called Lewis to a meeting in Washington. At the meeting, which allegedly took place on December 21, 2008, Paulson told Lewis that he and the board would be replaced if they invoked the MAC clause and additionally not to reveal the extent of the losses to shareholders. Paulson stated to Cuomo's office that he was directed by Bernanke to threaten Lewis in this manner. Congressional hearings into these allegations were conducted on June 25, 2009, with Bernanke testifying that he did not bully Ken Lewis. Under intense questioning by members of Congress, Bernanke said, "I never said anything about firing the board and the management [of Bank of America]." In further testimony, Bernanke said the Fed did nothing illegal or unethical in its efforts to convince Bank of America not to end the merger. Lewis told the panel that authorities expressed "strong views" but said he would not characterize their stance as improper.

Nominated for Chairman of the United States Federal Reserve

In nominating Ben S. Bernanke to succeed Alan Greenspan as Fed chairman, President Bush selected an economist with stellar credentials and a good reputation in Congress and on Wall Street who has won widespread plaudits since being named. Ben S. Bernanke was sworn in on February 1, 2006, as Chairman and a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Dr. Bernanke also serves as Chairman of the Federal Open Market Committee, the System's principal monetary policymaking body. He was appointed as a member of the Board to a full 14-year term, which expires January 31, 2020, and to a four-year term as Chairman, which expires January 31, 2010.

Renominated for Fed Chief

On 25th Aug 2009, President Obama announced that he would nominate Ben Bernanke to a second term as chairman of the Federal Reserve. In a short statement in Martha's Vineyard, with Bernanke standing at his side, Obama said Bernanke's background, temperament, courage and creativity helped to prevent another Great Depression in 2008. "Ben approached a financial system on the verge of collapse with calm and wisdom, with bold action and out-of-the-box thinking that has helped put the brakes on our economic free fall", the President said.

Senate Banking Committee hearings on his nomination begin December 3, 2009.

.Economic Views of Ben Bernanke

He has given several lectures at the London School of Economics on monetary theory and policy and has written three textbooks on macroeconomics, and one on microeconomics. He was the Director of the Monetary Economics Program of the National Bureau of Economic Research and the editor of the American Economic Review. He is among the 50 most published economists in the world according toIDEAS/RePEc.

Bernanke is particularly interested in the economic and political causes of the Great Depression, on which he has written extensively. Before Bernanke's work, the dominant monetarist theory of the Great Depression was Milton Friedman's view that it had been largely caused by the Federal Reserve's having reduced themoney supply. In a speech on Milton Friedman's ninetieth birthday (November 8, 2002), Bernanke said, "Let me end my talk by abusing slightly my status as an official representative of the Federal Reserve. I would like to say to Milton and Anna [Schwartz, Friedman's coauthor]: Regarding the Great Depression. You're right, we did it. We're very sorry. But thanks to you, we won't do it again." Anna Schwartz however is highly critical of Bernanke and wrote an opinion piece on New York Times to advise President Obama against his reappointment to Chair of Federal Reserve. Bernanke focused less on the role of the federal reserve, and more on the role of private banks and financial institutions. Bernanke found that the financial disruptions of 1930-33 reduced the efficiency of the credit allocation process; and that the resulting higher cost and reduced availability of credit acted to depress aggregate demand, identifying an effect he called thefinancial accelerator. When faced with a mild downturn, banks are likely to significantly cut back lending and other risky ventures. This further hurts the economy, creating a vicious cycle and potentially turning a mild recession into a major depression. Economist Brad DeLong, who had previously advocated his own theory for the Great Depression, notes that the current financial crisis has increased the pertinence of Bernanke's theory. In 2002, when the word "deflation" began appearing in the business news, Bernanke gave a speech about deflation.[37] In that speech, he mentioned that the government in a fiat money system owns the physical means of creating money. Control of the means of production for money implies that the government can always avoid deflation by simply issuing more money. He said “The U.S. government has a technology, called a printing press (or today, its electronic equivalent), that allows it to produce as many U.S. dollars as it wishes at no cost.” (He referred to a statement made by Milton Friedman about using a "helicopter drop" of money into the economy to fight deflation.) Bernanke's critics have since referred to him as "Helicopter Ben" or to his "helicopter printing press." In a footnote to his speech, Bernanke noted that "people know that inflation erodes the real value of the government's debt and, therefore, that it is in the interest of the government to create some inflation." For example, while Greenspan publicly supported President Clinton's deficit reduction plan and the Bush tax cuts, Bernanke, when questioned about taxation policy, said that it was none of his business, his exclusive remit being monetary policy, and said that fiscal policy and wider society related issues were what politicians were for and got elected for. Indeed, in his undergraduate economics textbooks he somewhat distances himself from the rhetorical economic libertarianism of Greenspan. In 2005 Bernanke coined the term saving glut, the idea, which does not take into account time preference, that a worldwide oversupply of savings finances the current account deficits of the United States and keeps interest rates low. His first months as chairman of the Federal Reserve System were marked by difficulties communicating with the media. An advocate of more transparent Fed policy and clearer statements than Greenspan had made, he had to back away from his initial idea of stating clearer inflation goals as such statements tended to affect the stock market. Maria Bartiromo disclosed on CNBC their private conversation on Fed policy (in which Bernanke said investors had misinterpreted his comments as indicating that he was "dovish" on inflation), and he was criticized for making public statements about Fed direction. Texas representative Ron Paul, a member of the House Banking Committee who takes the view that the Federal Reserve System should be abolished,has criticized Bernanke for "continually lowering interest rates," which he avers to have caused drastic inflation and unnecessary growth of the money supply, leading to what Paul refers to as the "inflation tax." However, many economists have argued that failure to have lowered the Fed's target rate would have contributed far more significantly to recession, and urged Bernanke (and the rest of the Federal Open Market Committee) to lower the rate beyond what it had done. For example, Larry Summers, who currently serves as Director of the White House's National Economic Council under President Barack Obama, wrote in the Financial Times on November 26, 2007 — in a column in which he argued that recession was likely — that "....maintaining demand must be the over-arching macro-economic priority. That means the Federal Reserve System has to get ahead of the curve and recognize — as the market already has — that levels of the Federal Funds rate that were neutral when the financial system was working normally are quite contractionary today." David Leonhardt of The New York Times wrote, on January 30, 2008, that "Dr. Bernanke's forecasts have been too sunny over the last six months. [On] the other hand, his forecast was a lot better than Wall Street's in mid-2006. Back then, he resisted calls for further interest rate increases because he thought the economy might be weakening. He was dead-on right about that—and the situation would be even worse now if he had listened to his critics then."



10 years as President of the World Bank, James D. Wolfensohn
focused the spotlight back on the institution's true purpose — fighting ...poverty eradication
http://www.worldbank.org/features/2005/jdw_0605.htm
JAMES D. WOLFENSOHN 1995-2005
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undefined A Decade of Dedication to Poverty Eradication
Final Press Briefing: JDW—A Personal Assessment

http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/209/43533.html
World Bank president James Wolfensohn is a man of charm, talent and managerial skill. When he speaks in public, he conveys an impression of sincerity and commitment. He has convinced many people that the World Bank under his leadership will finally tackle poverty and environmental degradation and work for a better world.


The test of his sincerity lies in the actual performance of the Bank. Since he has now been at the helm for quite some time, there is a substantial record to examine. In fact, the Bank continues to lend large sums for oil exploration, road building, big dams and the like. So it remains environmentally unfriendly and it is hard not to conclude that its President's environmental commitment is largely rhetorical. The Bank also has recently promoted harsh "structural adjustment programs," pension privatization measures and other attacks on the poor. By all measures, income inequality worldwide continues to widen. So it would appear that Mr. Wolfensohn's "commitment" to reduce poverty is not very deep either.

In March 1997, The Nation magazine published an article that reported that the Bank's lavish remodeling -- at a cost of $314 million -- includes gold leaf ceilings and rare woods of the sort that are to be found only in the most elegant business offices. Though this work began before Wolfensohn took over the helm of the Bank, he does not appear to have introduced more modest plans in the meantime, even while wringing millions in interest charges from the world's poorest countries.

To understand Wolfensohn, it helps to know something about him besides his engaging smile, his shock of unruly white hair, and his carefully-cultivated image as a committed social reformer. In fact, he is better understood as one of the world's richest men and sharpest financial operatives. About his personal fortune, the New York Times of September 14, 1997 said: "He enjoys the trapping of great wealth, like a private jet and a lavish vacation home in Jackson Hole, Wyoming."

Wolfensohn was born in Sydney, Australia. In 1959, he took at Master in Business Administration degree from Harvard Business School. He then he rose very rapidly in the financial world and developed a reputation as smart and ruthless. He held high posts in brokerage and investment firms in Australia from 1959 to 1967, when he moved to London as a top officer of the Henry Schroder investment banking group. Concern for the poor does not seem to have been on his list in those years.

In 1970 he became head of Schroder's operation in New York, a post he held through 1976. He then became an executive partner in Salomon Brothers, the hard-charging bond and investment house. At Salomon he played a key role in the bailout of the Chrysler Corporation by the United States government. His Chrysler play brought him into the world of official policy in Washington, where he caught the eye of World Bank President Robert McNamara. Rumored to be on the short list as McNamara's successor, Wolfensohn speedily arranged to become a U.S. citizen so as best to qualify for the post. When the Bank passed him up, he left Salomon in 1981 to set up his own firm -- James D. Wolfensohn Inc. The new firm was a key player in the hot mergers and acquisitions game on Wall Street during the 1980's (the firm has since been bought by Banker's Trust). Wolfensohn built up his own portfolio along the way and by the end of the decade, he was a millionaire many times over and a close compatriot of the Rockefeller clan. To his credit, Wolfensohn is more than just a money shark. He plays the violin and is a cultured person who appreciates the arts. He has served on the board of directors of a number of public charities, like the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts and the Rockefeller Foundation. He has also sat on the board of a number of private corporations, like communications giant CBS. And he belongs to the ultimate insider institutions like the Bilderberg and the Council on Foreign Relations.

Let us not judge Wolfensohn unfairly, but let us not close our eyes to who he is and how his career and his millions have shaped him. If he is a Wolf in sheep's clothing, would that really be so surprising, for a President of the World Bank?

Above some of the most powerful an dinfluential members of the Bilderberg Group, The Trilateral Commision, the Council On Foreign Relations and/or the Freemasons which David Icke
 
states are all interconnected organisations with the Bilderberg Group being thre most powerful group where it's memebers meet every years and the resolutions at their meetings then, one way or another, end up being put inot policies for all the major world governments...what David Icke argues and shows threw the onformation in his books is that the memebers of these pwoerful organisations and group are really a secret world government the control who ends up as the leader or most countries and what economic, social and monetary policies theit governments put in place...David Icke goes on the argue that this type of powerful world shadow government and group of secret societies manipulating how the world is run and whp will run it, is in effect a continuation of an unboken chain that has been going on since 2,000 BC.

 

 

 

 

 

 
USA Presidents Ronald Regan Geoge Bush Senior who was a founding senior member of the Bilderberg Group, The Trilaterial Commission, the Council on Foreign Relations and a Freemason

David Rockerfeller a founding senior member of the Bilderberg Group, The Trilaterial Commission, the Council on Foreign Relations and a Freemason



 

Above some of the most powerful an dinfluential members of the Bilderberg Group, The Trilateral Commision, the Council On Foreign Relations and/or the Freemasons which David Icke states are all interconencted organisations with the Bilderberg Group being thre most powerful group where it's memebers meet every years and the resolutions at their meetings then, one way or another, end up being put inot policies for all the major world governments...what David Icke argues and shows threw the onformation in his books is that the memebers of these pwoerful organisations and group are really a secret world government the control who ends up as the leader or most countries and what economic, social and monetary policies theit governments put in place...David Icke goes on the argue that this type of powerful world shadow government and group of secret societies manipulating how the world is run and whp will run it, is in effect a continuation of an unboken chain that has been going on since 2,000 BC.

<="" embed="" width="320" align="middle" height="240"> Secret Societies Clip1

 Secret Societies Clip2

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USA Presiendt Bill Clinton Admits to Attending Bilderberg Meetings and being a member of the Bilderberg Group.



Tony Blair a former  Prime Minister of Britain a senior member of the Bilderberg Group, The Trilaterial Commission, the Council on Foreign Relations and a Freemason

George Bush Senior a former a President of the USA
 a senior member of the Bilderberg Group, The Trilaterial Commission, the Council on Foreign Relations and a Freemason

Ronald Regan and George Bush Senior  senior both former Preseident of the USA
Georgw Bush Senior was a member of the Bilberberg Group, The Trilaterial Commission, the Council on Foreign Relations and a Freemason
however, Ronald Regan was a not a member of these group and originally promised to expose and investigate secret societies and stated he would never have George Bush in his team when running for the Presidential elections, however, suddenly changed his mind and overnight endorsed George Bush Senior as his running mate in the USA Presidential elections, and after he won the elections and became President of the USA, Ronald Regan was shot and could have died if the bullet has been a couple of inches to one side, then George Bush Senior would have become the President of the USA a lot sooner than he did.


USA President Lyndon B. Johnson
 a founding senior member of the Bilderberg Group, The Trilaterial Commission, the Council on Foreign Relations and a Freemason
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Lyndon B. Johnson being sworn in aboard Air Force Oneby Federal Judge Sarah T. Hughes, following theassassination of John F. Kennedy. To the right of Johnson isJacqueline Kennedy, widow of Kennedy; to the left is Mrs.Lady Bird Johnson, and sitting down near the airplane window is Jack Valenti, White House commission (later president of the MPAA). Assistant Press Secretary Malcolm Kilduff, at bottom left, records the event with a dictaphone.

Assassination of President John F. Kennedy

Two hours and eight minutes after President Kennedy was assassinated in a motorcade at Dealey Plaza, Dallas, Texas, Johnson was sworn in as President on Air Force One in Dallas at Love Field Airport on November 22, 1963. He was sworn in by Federal Judge Sarah T. Hughes, a family friend, making him the first President sworn in by a woman. He is also the only President to have been sworn in on Texas soil. Johnson did not swear on a Bible, as there were none on Air Force One; a Roman Catholic missal was found in Kennedy's desk and was used for the swearing-in ceremony.

Johnson created a panel headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren, known as the Warren Commission, to investigate Kennedy's assassination. The commission conducted hearings and concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the assassination. Not everyone agreed with the Warren Commission, however, and numerous public and private investigations continued for decades after Johnson left office. The wave of national grief following the assassination gave enormous momentum to Johnson's promise to carry out Kennedy's programs. He retained senior Kennedy appointees, some for the full term of his presidency. Even the late President's brother, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, with whom Johnson had a notoriously difficult relationship, remained in office until leaving in 1964 to run for the Senate.

1964 presidential election

On September 7, 1964, Johnson's campaign managers for the 1964 presidential election broadcast the "Daisy ad." It portrayed a little girl picking petals from a daisy, counting up to ten. Then a baritone voice took over, counted down from ten to zero and a nuclear bomb exploded. The message was that Barry Goldwater meant nuclear war. Although it only aired the one time, it escalated into a very heated election. Johnson won the presidency by a landslide with 61% of the vote and the then-widest popular margin in the 20th century — more than 15 million votes (this was later surpassed by incumbent President Nixon's defeat of Senator McGovern in 1972). Percentage-wise, Johnson's popular vote margin of over 22 percentage points is a record that stands to this day.

In the summer of 1964, the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) was organized with the purpose of challenging Mississippi's all-white and anti-civil rights delegation to the Democratic National Convention of that year as not representative of all Mississippians. At the national convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey the MFDP claimed the seats for delegates for Mississippi, not on the grounds of the Party rules, but because the official Mississippi delegation had been elected by a primary conducted under Jim Crow laws in which blacks were excluded because of poll taxes, literacy tests, and even violence against black voters. The national Party’s liberal leaders supported a compromise in which the white delegation and the MFDP would have an even division of the seats; Johnson was concerned that, while the regular Democrats of Mississippi would probably vote for Goldwater anyway, if the Democratic Party rejected the regular Democrats, he would lose the Democratic Party political structure that he needed to win in the South. Eventually, Hubert Humphrey, Walter Reuther and black civil rights leaders (including Roy Wilkins, Martin Luther King, and Bayard Rustin) worked out a compromise with MFDP leaders: the MFDP would receive two non-voting seats on the floor of the Convention; the regular Mississippi delegation would be required to pledge to support the party ticket; and no future Democratic convention would accept a delegation chosen by a discriminatory poll. When the leaders took the proposal back to the 64 members who had made the bus trip to Atlantic City, they voted it down. As MFDP Vice ChairFannie Lou Hamer said, "We didn't come all the way up here to compromise for no more than we’d gotten here. We didn't come all this way for no two seats, 'cause all of us is tired." The failure of the compromise effort allowed the rest of the Democratic Party to conclude that the MFDP was simply being unreasonable, and they lost a great deal of their liberal support. After that, the convention went smoothly for Johnson without a searing battle over civil rights. Despite the landslide victory, Johnson, who carried the South as a whole in the election, lost the Deep South states of Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia and South Carolina, the first time a Democratic candidate had done so since Reconstruction.

Johnson won the presidency by a majority of 61 percent and said he would “carry forward the plans and programs of John Fitzgerald Kennedy. Not because of our sorrow or sympathy, but because they are right.” "1964 Year In Review"



Jimmy Carter
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In office
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
Vice President Walter Mondale
Preceded by Gerald Ford
Succeeded by Ronald Reagan

In office
January 12, 1971 – January 14, 1975
Lieutenant Lester Maddox
Preceded by Lester Maddox
Succeeded by George Busbee

Member of the Georgia State Senatefrom 14th District
In office
January 14, 1963 – 1966
Preceded by New district
Succeeded by Hugh Carter
Constituency Sumter County

Born October 1, 1924 (age 85)
Plains, Georgia
Birth name James Earl Carter, Jr.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Rosalynn Smith Carter
Children John William Carter
James Earl Carter III
Donnel Jeffrey Carter
Amy Lynn Carter
Residence Atlanta, Georgia
Alma mater Georgia Southwestern College
Union College
United States Naval Academy
Profession Farmer (peanuts), naval officer
Religion Baptist[1]
Signature
Military service
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 1946–1953
Rank Lieutenant


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With his dog, Bozo, in 1937, around age 13.
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Jimmy Carter as a midshipman at the US Naval Academy
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With his mother, Lillian Carter, February 17, 1977
Jimmy Carter (far right) in 1991 with President George H. W. Bush and former Presidents Gerald Ford, Richard Nixonand Ronald Reagan at the dedication of the Reagan Presidential Library
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President of the United States of America, George W. Bush invited former Presidents George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Jimmy Carter (far right) and then-President ElectBarack Obama for a meeting and lunch at The White House. Photo taken Wednesday, Jan. 7, 2009 in the Oval Office at The White House.
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Official White House portrait of Jimmy Carter
Carter at a book signing in Phoenix, Arizona
Former President and Navy submariner Jimmy Carter (left) hoists a replica of the USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23) given to him by Secretary of the Navy John H. Dalton (right) at a naming ceremony in the Pentagon on April 28, 1998
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4 U.S. Presidents. Former President Carter (right), walks with, from left,George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush andBill Clinton during the dedication of theWilliam J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas on November 18, 2004

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Carter in Plains, 2008.

Jimmy Carter is a native Georgian, born and raised in the tiny southwest Georgia hamlet of Plains near the larger town of Americus. The Carter family originated from southern England (Carter's paternal ancestor arrived in the American Colonies in 1635),[5] and had lived in the state of Georgia for several generations; his great-grandfather, Private L.B. Walker Carter (1832–1874), served in the Confederate States Army.

The first president born in a hospital,[6] he was the eldest of four children of James Earl Carter and Bessie Lillian Gordy. Carter's father was a prominent business owner in the community and his mother was aregistered nurse. He was a gifted student from an early age who always had a fondness for reading. By the time he attended Plains High School, he was also a star in basketball. He was greatly influenced by one of his high school teachers, Julia Coleman (1889–1973). While he was in high school he was in the Future Farmers of America , which later changed its name to the National FFA Organization , serving as the Plains FFA Chapter Secretary.[7]

After high school, Carter enrolled at Georgia Southwestern College, in Americus. He would later apply to theUnited States Naval Academy and, after taking additional mathematics courses at Georgia Tech, he was admitted in 1943. Carter graduated 59th out of 820 midshipmen.[8]

Carter had three younger siblings: his brother, William Alton "Billy" Carter (1937–1988), and sisters Gloria Carter Spann (1926–1990) and Ruth Carter Stapleton (1929–1983). During Carter's Presidency, his brother Billy was often in the news, often in an unflattering light.

He married Rosalynn Smith in 1946. They had four children: John William "Jack" Carter (born 1947); James Earl "Chip" Carter III(born 1950); Donnel Jeffrey "Jeff" Carter, (born 1952) and Amy Lynn Carter (born 1967).

He is a cousin of Motown founder Berry Gordy Jr. on his mother's side, and a cousin of the late June Carter Cash [9].

Naval career

Carter served on surface ships and on diesel-electric submarines in the Atlantic and Pacific fleets. As a junior officer, he completed qualification for command of a diesel-electric submarine. He applied for the US Navy's fledgling nuclear submarine program run by then Captain Hyman G. Rickover. Rickover's demands on his men and machines were legendary, and Carter later said that, next to his parents, Rickover had the greatest influence on him.

Carter has said that he loved the Navy, and had planned to make it his career. His ultimate goal was to become Chief of Naval Operations. Carter felt the best route for promotion was with submarine duty since he felt that nuclear power would be increasingly used in submarines. During service on the diesel-electric submarineUSS Pomfret, Carter was almost washed overboard.[10] After six years of military service, Carter trained for the position of engineering officer in submarine USS Seawolf, then under construction.[11] Carter completed a non-credit introductory course in nuclear reactor power at Union College starting in March 1953. This followed Carter's first-hand experience as part of a group of American and Canadian servicemen who took part in cleaning up after a partial nuclear meltdown at Canada's Chalk River Laboratories reactor in 1952.[12][13]

Upon the death of his father, James Earl Carter, Sr., in July 1953, Lieutenant Carter immediately resigned his commission, and he was discharged from the Navy on October 9, 1953.[14][15] This cut short his nuclear powerplant operator training, and he was never able to serve on a nuclear submarine, since the first boat of that fleet, the USS Nautilus (SSN-571), was launched on January 17, 1955, over a year after his discharge from the Navy.[16]

Farming and teachings

After his naval service, Carter then took over and expanded his family business in Plains. There he was involved in a peanut farming accident that left him with a permanently bent finger. His farming business was successful, and during the 1970 gubernatorial campaign, he was considered a wealthy peanut farmer.[17]

From a young age, Carter showed a deep commitment to Christianity, serving as a Sunday School teacher throughout his life. Even as President, Carter prayed several times a day, and professed that Jesus Christ was the driving force in his life. Carter had been greatly influenced by a sermon he had heard as a young man, called, "If you were arrested for being a Christian, would there be enough evidence to convict you?"[18]

Early political career

State Senate

Jimmy Carter started his career by serving on various local boards, governing such entities as the schools, hospitals, and libraries, among others. In the 1960s, he served two terms in the Georgia Senate from the fourteenth district of Georgia.

His 1961 election to the state Senate, which followed the end of Georgia's County Unit System (per the Supreme Court case of Gray v. Sanders), was chronicled in his book Turning Point: A Candidate, a State, and a Nation Come of Age. The election involved corruption led by Joe Hurst, the sheriff of Quitman County; system abuses included votes from deceased persons and tallies filled with people who supposedly voted in alphabetical order. It took a challenge of the fraudulent results for Carter to win the election. Carter was reelected in 1964, to serve a second two-year term.

For a time in State Senate he chaired its Education Committee.[19]

In 1966, Carter declined running for re-election as a state senator to pursue a gubernatorial run. His first cousin, Hugh Carter, was elected as a Democrat and took over his seat in the Senate.

Campaigns for Governor

In 1966, during the end of his career as a state senator, he flirted with the idea of running for the United States House of Representatives. His Republican opponent dropped out and decided to run for Governor of Georgia. Carter did not want to see a Republican Governor of his state, and, in turn, dropped out of the race for Congress and joined the race to become Governor. Carter lost the Democratic primary, but drew enough votes as a third place candidate to force the favorite, Ellis Arnall, into arunoff election, setting off a chain of events which resulted in the election of Lester Maddox. During this race Carter ran as a moderate alternative to both liberal Arnall and conservative Maddox.[19] Although he lost, his strong third place finish was viewed as a success for a little-known state senator.[19]

For the next four years, Carter returned to his agriculture business and carefully planned for his next campaign for Governor in 1970, making over 1,800 speeches throughout the state.

During his 1970 campaign, he ran an uphill populist campaign in the Democratic primary against former Governor Carl Sanders, labeling his opponent "Cufflinks Carl". Carter was never a segregationist, and refused to join the segregationist White Citizens' Council, prompting a boycott of his peanut warehouse. He also had been one of only two families which voted to admit blacks to the Plains Baptist Church.[20] However, he "said things the segregationists wanted to hear", according to historian E. Stanly Godbold.[21] Also, Carter's campaign aides handed out a photograph of his opponent celebrating with black basketball players.[22][23] Following his close victory over Sanders in the primary, he was elected Governor over Republican Hal Suit.

Governor of Georgia

Carter was sworn in as the 76th Governor of Georgia on January 12, 1971 and held this post for one term, until January 14, 1975. Governors of Georgia were not allowed to succeed themselves at the time. His predecessor as Governor, Lester Maddox, became the Lieutenant Governor. However, Carter and Maddox found little common ground during their four years of service, often publicly feuding with each other.[24][25]

Civil rights politics

Carter declared in his inaugural speech that the time of racial segregation was over, and that racial discrimination had no place in the future of the state. He was the first statewide office holder in the Deep South to say this in public.[26] Afterwards, Carter appointed many African Americans to statewide boards and offices. He was often called one of the "New Southern Governors" – much more moderate than their predecessors, and supportive of racial desegregation and expanding African-Americans' rights.

Abortion

Although "personally opposed" to abortion, subsequent to the landmark US Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade, 410 US 113 (1973) Carter supported legalized abortion.[27] He did not support increased federal funding for abortion services as president and was criticized by the ACLU for not doing enough to find alternatives to abortion.[28]

State government reforms

Carter improved government efficiency by merging about 300 state agencies into 30 agencies. One of his aides recalled that Governor Carter "was right there with us, working just as hard, digging just as deep into every little problem. It was his program and he worked on it as hard as anybody, and the final product was distinctly his." He also pushed reforms through the legislature, providing equal state aid to schools in the wealthy and poor areas of Georgia, set up community centers for mentally handicapped children, and increased educational programs for convicts. Carter took pride in a program he introduced for the appointment of judges and state government officials. Under this program, all such appointments were based on merit, rather than political influence.[29][30]

Vice-Presidential aspirations in 1972

In 1972, as US Senator George McGovern of South Dakota was marching toward the Democratic nomination for President, Carter called a news conference in Atlanta to warn that McGovern was unelectable. Carter criticized McGovern as too liberal on both foreign and domestic policy, yet when McGovern's nomination became a foregone conclusion, Carter lobbied to become his vice-presidential running mate.

During the 1972 Democratic National Convention he endorsed the candidacy of Senator Henry M. Jackson of Washington.[31] However, Carter received 30 votes at theDemocratic National Convention in the chaotic ballot for Vice President. McGovern offered the second spot to Reubin Askew, from next door Florida and one of the "new southern governors", but he declined.

Death penalty and crime

After the US Supreme Court overturned Georgia's death penalty law in 1972, Carter quickly proposed state legislation to replace the death penalty with life in prison (an option which previously didn't exist).[32]

When the legislature passed a new death penalty statute, Carter, despite voicing reservations about its constitutionality[33], signed new legislation on March 28, 1973[34]to authorize the death penalty for murder, rape and other offenses, and to implement trial procedures which would conform to the newly-announced constitutional requirements. In 1976, the Supreme Court upheld Georgia's new death penalty for murder; in the case of Coker v. Georgia, the Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty was unconstitutional as applied to rape.

Many in America were outraged by William Calley's life sentence at Fort Benning for his role in the My Lai Massacre; Carter instituted "American Fighting Man's Day" and asked Georgians to drive for a week with their lights on in support of Calley.[35] Indiana's governor asked all state flags to be flown at half-staff for Calley, and Utah's and Mississippi's governors also disagreed with the verdict.[35]

Despite his earlier support, Carter soon became a death penalty opponent, and during Presidential campaigns (like previous nominee George McGovern and two successive nominees, Walter Mondale and Michael Dukakis), this was noted.[36] Currently, Carter is known for his outspoken opposition to the death penalty in all forms; in his Nobel Prize lecture, he urged "prohibition of the death penalty".[37]

United States Senate appointment

Richard Russell, Jr., then-President pro tempore of the United States Senate, died in office on January 21, 1971. Carter, only nine days into his governorship, appointed state Democratic Party chair David H. Gambrell to fill an unexpired Russell term in the Senate on February 1.[38] Gambrell was defeated in the next Democratic primaryby the more conservative Sam Nunn.

Other activities

In 1973, while Governor of Georgia, Carter filed a report on his 1969 UFO sighting with the International UFO Bureau in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.[39][40][41] However, in 2007, Carter stated that he did not remember why he filed the report and that he believes he probably only did it at the request of one of his children. He also stated he does not believe it was an alien spacecraft, but rather believes it was likely some sort of military experiment being conducted from a nearby military base.[42]

Carter made an appearance as the first guest of the evening on an episode of the game show What's My Line in 1974, signing in as "X", lest his name give away his occupation. After his job was identified on question seven of ten by Gene Shalit, he talked about having brought movie production to the state of Georgia, citingDeliverance, and the then-unreleased The Longest Yard.

In 1974, Carter was chairman of the Democratic National Committee's congressional, as well as gubernatorial, campaigns.

1976 presidential campaign

When Carter entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries in 1976, he was considered to have little chance against nationally better-known politicians. He had aname recognition of only two percent. When he told his family of his intention to run for President, his mother asked, "President of what?" However, the Watergate scandal was still fresh in the voters' minds, and so his position as an outsider, distant from Washington, D.C., became an asset. The centerpiece of his campaign platform was government reorganization.

Carter became the front-runner early on by winning the Iowa caucuses and the New Hampshire primary. He used a two-prong strategy: In the South, which most had tacitly conceded to Alabama's George Wallace, Carter ran as a moderate favorite son. When Wallace proved to be a spent force, Carter swept the region. In the North, Carter appealed largely to conservative Christian and rural voters and had little chance of winning a majority in most states. He won several Northern states by building the largest single bloc. Carter's strategy involved reaching a region before another candidate could extend influence there. He traveled over 50,000 miles, visited 37 states, and delivered over 200 speeches before any other candidates even announced that they were in the race.[43] Initially dismissed as a regional candidate, Carter proved to be the only Democrat with a truly national strategy, and he eventually clinched the nomination.

The media discovered and promoted Carter, as Lawrence Shoup noted in his 1980 book The Carter Presidency and Beyond:

What Carter had that his opponents did not was the acceptance and support of elite sectors of the mass communications media. It was their favorable coverage of Carter and his campaign that gave him an edge, propelling him rocket-like to the top of the opinion polls. This helped Carter win key primary election victories, enabling him to rise from an obscure public figure to President-elect in the short space of 9 months.

Carter was interviewed by Robert Scheer of Playboy for its November 1976 issue, which hit the newsstands a couple of weeks before the election. It was here that in the course of a digression on his religion's view of pride, Carter admitted: "I've looked on a lot of women with lust. I've committed adultery in my heart many times."[44] He remains the only American president to be interviewed by this magazine.

As late as January 26, 1976, Carter was the first choice of only four percent of Democratic voters, according to a Gallup poll. Yet "by mid-March 1976 Carter was not only far ahead of the active contenders for the Democratic presidential nomination, he also led President Ford by a few percentage points", according to Shoup.

He chose Senator Walter F. Mondale as his running mate. He attacked Washington in his speeches, and offered a religious salve for the nation's wounds.[45]

Carter began the race with a sizable lead over Ford, who was able to narrow the gap over the course of the campaign, but was unable to prevent Carter from narrowly defeating him on November 2, 1976. Carter won the popular vote by 50.1 percent to 48.0 percent for Ford and received 297 electoral votes to Ford's 240. He became the first contender from the Deep South to be elected President since the 1848 election.

Presidency - 1977–1981

Carter was elected over Gerald Ford and Eugene McCarthy in 1976. His tenure was a time of continuing inflation and recession, as well as an energy crisis. On January 7, 1980, Carter signed Law H.R. 5860 aka Public Law 96-185 known as The Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979 bailing out Chrysler Corporation. He led the plan to deregulate the airline industry. He canceled military pay raises during a time of high inflation and government deficits. He declared amnesty to Vietnam draft dodgers. He encouraged energy conservation, installed solar panels in the White House and wore sweaters while turning down the heat. While attempting to calm various conflicts around the World, most visibly in the Middle East resulting in the signing of the Camp David Accords, giving back the Panama Canal and signing the SALT II nuclear arms reduction treaty with the USSR, the final year of his administration was marred by the Iran hostage crisis which contributed to his loss in his 1980 campaign for re-election to Ronald Reagan.

He wore a sweater on April 17, 1977 and delivered a fireside chat where he famously declared that the energy situation was themoral equivalent of war while clenching his fist.

Carter wrote that the most intense and mounting opposition to his policies came from the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, which he attributed to Ted Kennedy’s ambition to replace him as president.[46]

Post-Presidency

In 1981, Carter returned to Georgia to his peanut farm, which he had placed into a blind trust during his presidency to avoid even the appearance of a conflict of interest. He found that the trustees had mismanaged the trust, leaving him over one million dollars in debt. In the years that followed, he has led an active life, establishing The Carter Center, building his presidential library, teaching at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, and writing numerous books.[45]

Legacy

When he first left office, Carter's presidency was viewed by some as a failure.[47][48][49] In historical rankings of US presidents, the Carter presidency has ranged from #19 to #34. Although Carter's presidency received mixed reviews from some historians, his all-around peace keeping and humanitarian efforts since he left office have led him to be widely renowned as one of the most successful ex-presidents in US history.[50][51]

Although Carter has also received mixed reviews in both television and film documentaries, such as the Man from Plains (2007), the 2009 Documentary, Back Door Channels: The Price of Peace, credits Carter's efforts at Camp David, which brought peace between Israel and Egypt, with bringing the only meaningful peace to the Middle East. The film opened the 2009 Monte-Carlo Television Festival in an invitation-only royal screening[52] on June 7, 2009 at the Grimaldi Forum in the presence of His Serene Highness Albert II, Prince of Monaco.[53] The film has not yet shown in the United States, an indication of Carter's comparatively high popularity overseas versus at home in the U.S.[54]

Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale are the longest-living post-presidential team in American history. On December 11, 2006, they had been out of office for 25 years and 325 days, surpassing the former record established by President John Adams and Vice President Thomas Jefferson, who both died on July 4, 1826.

Jimmy Carter is one of only four presidents,[55] and the only one in modern history, who did not have an opportunity to nominate a judge to serve on the Supreme Court.

Public image

The Independent reported, "Carter is widely considered a better man than he was a president."[56] While he began his term with a 66% approval rating,[57] this dropped to 34% approval by the time he left office, with 55% disapproving.[58]

In the wake of Nixon's Watergate Scandal, exit polls from the 1976 Presidential election suggested that many still held Gerald Ford's pardon of Nixon against him,[59]and Carter by comparison seemed a sincere, honest, and well-meaning Southerner.[56]

When Carter ran for reelection, Ronald Reagan's nonchalant self-confidence contrasted to Carter's serious and introspective temperament. Carter's personal attention to detail, seeming indecisiveness and weakness with people was also accentuated by Reagan's charm and easy delegation of tasks to subordinates.[60] Ultimately, the combination of the economic problems, Iran hostage crisis, and lack of Washington cooperation made it easy for Reagan to portray him as an ineffectual leader.

Since leaving office, Carter's reputation has much improved. Carter's presidential approval rating, which sat at 31% just prior to the 1980 election, was polled in early 2009 at 64%.[61] Carter's continued post-Presidency activities have also been favorably received. Carter explains that a great deal of this change was owed to Reagan's successor, George H.W. Bush, who actively sought him out and was far more courteous and interested in his advice than Reagan had been.[56] Carter has maintained working relationships with former Presidents Clinton and George H.W. Bush, and despite their political differences the three men all have become good friends over the years while working together in a number of humanitarian and other projects.[62]


USA Preseident Jimmy Carter a founding senior member of the Bilderberg Group, The Trilaterial Commission, the Council on Foreign Relations and a Freemason

James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. (born October 1, 1924) served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981 and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize, the only U.S. President to have received the Prize after leaving office. Prior to becoming president, Carter served two terms in the Georgia Senate followed by the governorship of the state of Georgia, from 1971 to 1975,[2] and was a peanut farmer and naval officer.

As president, Carter created two new cabinet-level departments: the Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He established a national energy policy that included conservation, price control, and new technology. In foreign affairs, Carter pursued the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties and the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II). Carter sought to put a stronger emphasis on human rights; he negotiated a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt in 1979. His return of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama was seen as a major concession of US influence in Latin America, and Carter came under heavy criticism for it. His term came during a period of persistentstagflation in a number of countries, including the United States, which significantly damaged his popularity. The final year of his presidential tenure was marked by several major crises, including the 1979 takeover of the American embassy in Iran and holding of hostages by Iranian students, an unsuccessful rescue attempt of the hostages, serious fuel shortages, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. By 1980, Carter's disapproval ratings were significantly higher than his approval, and he was challenged by Ted Kennedy for the Democratic Party nomination in the 1980 election. Carter defeated Kennedy for the nomination, but lost the election to Republican Ronald Reagan.

After leaving office, Carter and his wife Rosalynn founded The Carter Center in 1982,[3] a nongovernmental, not-for-profit organization that works to advance human rights. He has traveled extensively to conduct peace negotiations, observe elections, and advance disease prevention and eradication in developing nations. Carter is a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity project,[4] and also remains particularly vocal on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Carter Center

As President, Carter expressed a goal of making government "competent and compassionate." In pursuit of that vision, he has been involved in a variety of national and international public policy, conflict resolution, human rights and charitable causes.

In 1982, he established The Carter Center in Atlanta, Georgia, to advance human rights and alleviate unnecessary human suffering. The non-profit, nongovernmental Center promotes democracy, mediates and prevents conflicts, and monitors the electoral process in support of free and fair elections. It also works to improve global health through the control and eradication of diseases such as Guinea worm disease, river blindness, malaria, trachoma, lymphatic filariasis, and schistosomiasis. It also works to diminish the stigmaagainst mental illnesses and improve nutrition through increased crop production in Africa. A major accomplishment of The Carter Center has been the elimination of more than 99% of cases of Guinea worm disease, a debilitating parasite that has existed since ancient times, from an estimated 3.5 million cases in 1986 to fewer than 10,000 cases in 2007.[63] The Carter Center has monitored 70 elections in 28 countries since 1989.[64] It has worked to resolve conflicts in Haiti, Bosnia, Ethiopia, North Korea, Sudan and other countries. Carter and the Center actively support human rights defenders around the world and have intervened with heads of state on their behalf.

Nobel Peace Prize

In 2002, President Carter received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work "to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development" throughThe Carter Center.[65] Three sitting presidents, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson and Barack Obama, have received the prize; Carter is unique in receiving the award for his actions after leaving the presidency. He is, along with Martin Luther King, Jr., one of only two native Georgians to receive the Nobel.

Diplomacy

North Korea

In 1994, North Korea had expelled investigators from the International Atomic Energy Agency and was threatening to begin processing spent nuclear fuel. In response then-President Clinton pressured for US sanctions and ordered large amounts of troops and vehicles into the area to brace for war.

Bill Clinton secretly recruited Carter to undertake a peace mission to North Korea,[66] under the guise that it was a private mission of Carter's. Clinton saw Carter as a way to let North Korean President Kim Il-sung back down without losing face.[67]

Carter negotiated an understanding with Kim Il-sung, but went further and outlined a treaty which he announced on CNN without the permission of the Clinton White House as a way to force the US into action. The Clinton Administration signed a later version of the Agreed Framework, under which North Korea agreed to freeze and ultimately dismantle its current nuclear program and comply with its nonproliferation obligations in exchange for oil deliveries, the construction of two light water reactors to replace its graphite reactors, and discussions for eventual diplomatic relations.

The agreement was widely hailed at the time as a significant diplomatic achievement.[68] However, in December 2002, the Agreed Framework collapsed as a result of a dispute between the George W. Bush Administration and the North Korean government of Kim Jong-il. In 2001, President George W. Bush had taken a confrontational position toward North Korea and, in January 2002, named it as part of an "Axis of Evil." Meanwhile, North Korea began developing the capability to enrich uranium. Bush Administration opponents of the Agreed Framework believed that the North Korean government never intended to give up a nuclear weapons program, but supporters believed that the agreement could have been successful and was undermined.[69]

Middle East

Carter and experts from The Carter Center assisted unofficial Israeli and Palestinian negotiators in designing a model agreement for peace–-called the Geneva Accord–-in 2002–2003.[70]

Carter has also in recent years become a frequent critic of Israel's policies in Lebanon, West Bank, and Gaza.[71][72]

In April 2008, the London-based Arabic newspaper Al-Hayat reported that Carter met with exiled Hamas leader Khaled Mashaal on his visit to Syria. The Carter Centerinitially did not confirm nor deny the story. The US State Department considers Hamas a terrorist organization.[73] Within this Mid-East trip, Carter also laid a wreath on the grave of Yasser Arafat in Ramallah on April 14, 2008.[74] Carter said on April 23 that neither Condoleezza Rice nor anyone else in the State Department had warned him against meeting with Hamas leaders during his trip.[75] Carter spoke to Mashaal on several matters, including "formulas for prisoner exchange to obtain the release of Corporal Shalit."[76]

In May 2007, while arguing that the United States should directly talk to Iran, Carter stated that Israel has 150 nuclear weapons in its arsenal.[77]

In December 2008, Carter visited Damascus again, where he met with Syrian President Bashar Assad, and the Hamas leadership. During his visit he gave an exclusive interview to Forward Magazine, the first ever interview for any American president, current or former, with a Syrian media outlet.[78][79]

Africa

Carter held summits in Egypt and Tunisia in 1995–1996 to address violence in the Great Lakes region of Africa.[80]

Carter played a key role in negotiation of the Nairobi Agreement in 1999 between Sudan and Uganda.[81]

On July 18, 2007, Carter joined Nelson Mandela in Johannesburg, South Africa, to announce his participation in a new humanitarian organization called The Elders. In October 2007, Carter toured Darfur with several of The Elders, including Desmond Tutu. Sudanese security prevented him from visiting a Darfuri tribal leader, leading to a heated exchange.[82]

On June 18, 2007, Carter, accompanied by his wife, arrived in Dublin, Ireland, for talks with President Mary McAleese and Bertie Ahern concerning human rights. On June 19, Carter attended and spoke at the annual Human Rights Forum at Croke Park. An agreement between Irish Aid and The Carter Center was also signed on this day.

In November 2008, President Carter, former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, and Graca Machel, wife of Nelson Mandela, were stopped from entering Zimbabwe, to inspect the human rights situation, by President Robert Mugabe's government.

Americas

Carter led a mission to Haiti in 1994 with Senator Sam Nunn and former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Colin Powell to avert a US-led multinational invasion and restore to power Haiti's democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide.[83]

Carter visited Cuba in May 2002 and had full discussions with Fidel Castro and the Cuban government. He was allowed to address the Cuban public uncensored on national television and radio with a speech that he wrote and presented in Spanish. In the speech, he called on the US to end "an ineffective 43-year-old economic embargo" and on Castro to hold free elections, improve human rights, and allow greater civil liberties.[84] He met with political dissidents; visited the AIDS sanitarium, a medical school, a biotech facility, an agricultural production cooperative, and a school for disabled children; and threw a pitch for an all-star baseball game in Havana. The visit made Carter the first President of the United States, in or out of office, to visit the island since the Cuban revolution of 1959.[85]

Carter observed the Venezuela recall elections on August 15, 2004. European Union observers had declined to participate, saying too many restrictions were put on them by the Hugo Chávez administration.[86] A record number of voters turned out to defeat the recall attempt with a 59% "no" vote.[87] The Carter Center stated that the process "suffered from numerous irregularities," but said it did not observe or receive "evidence of fraud that would have changed the outcome of the vote".[88] On the afternoon of August 16, 2004, the day after the vote, Carter and Organization of American States (OAS) Secretary General César Gaviria gave a joint press conference in which they endorsed the preliminary results announced by the National Electoral Council. The monitors' findings "coincided with the partial returns announced today by the National Elections Council," said Carter, while Gaviria added that the OAS electoral observation mission's members had "found no element of fraud in the process." Directing his remarks at opposition figures who made claims of "widespread fraud" in the voting, Carter called on all Venezuelans to "accept the results and work together for the future".[89] However, a Penn, Schoen & Berland Associates (PSB) exit poll had predicted that Chávez would lose by 20%; when the election results showed him to have won by 20%, Schoen commented, "I think it was a massive fraud".[90] US News and World Report offered an analysis of the polls, indicating "very good reason to believe that the [Penn, Schoen & Berland] exit poll had the result right, and that Chávez's election officials – and Carter and the American media – got it wrong." The exit poll and the government's programming of election machines became the basis of claims of election fraud. Indymedia, citing the Associated Press, reports that Penn, Schoen & Berland used Súmate [pro-recall] volunteers for fieldwork, and its results contradicted five other opposition exit polls.[91]

Following Ecuador's severing of ties with Colombia in March 2008, Carter brokered a deal for agreement between the countries' respective presidents on the restoration of low-level diplomatic relations announced June 8, 2008.[92][93]

Vietnam

On November 18, 2009, Carter visited Vietnam to build houses for the poor. The one-week program, known as Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Work Project 2009, would bring 32 houses to Dong Xa village in the northern province of Hai Duong. The project launch was scheduled for November 14, the news source quoted the Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokeswoman Nguyen Phuong Nga as saying. Administered by the non-governmental and non-profit Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI), the annual program of 2009 would build and repair 166 homes in Vietnam and some other Asian countries with the support of nearly 3,000 volunteers around the world, the organization said on its website. HFHI has worked in Vietnam since 2001 to provide low-cost housing, water and sanitation solutions for the poor. It has worked in provinces like Tien Giang and Dong Nai as well as Ho Chi Minh City.[94]

Criticism of US policy

In 2001, Carter criticized President Bill Clinton's controversial pardon of Marc Rich, calling it "disgraceful" and suggesting that Rich's financial contributions to the Democratic Party were a factor in Clinton's action.[95]

Carter has also criticized the presidency of George W. Bush and the Iraq War. In a 2003 New York Times editorial, Carter warned against the consequences of a war inIraq and urged restraint in use of military force.[96] In March 2004, Carter condemned George W. Bush and Tony Blair for waging an unnecessary war "based upon lies and misinterpretations" in order to oust Saddam Hussein. In August 2006, Carter criticized Blair for being "subservient" to the Bush administration and accused Blair of giving unquestioning support to Bush's Iraq policies.[97] In a May 2007 interview with the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, he said, "I think as far as the adverse impact on the nation around the world, this administration has been the worst in history," when it comes to foreign affairs.[98][99] However, two days after the quote was published, Carter told NBC's Today that the "worst in history" comment was "careless or misinterpreted," and that he "wasn't comparing this administration with other administrations back through history, but just with President Nixon's."[100] The day after the "worst in history" comment was published, White House spokesman Tony Fratto said that Carter had become "increasingly irrelevant with these kinds of comments."[101]

On May 19, 2007, Mr. Blair made his final visit to Iraq before stepping down as British Prime Minister, and Carter used the occasion to criticize him once again. Carter told the BBC that Blair was "apparently subservient" to Bush and criticized him for his "blind support" for the Iraq war.[102] Carter described Blair's actions as "abominable" and stated that the British Prime Minister's "almost undeviating support for the ill-advised policies of President Bush in Iraq have been a major tragedy for the world." Carter said he believes that had Blair distanced himself from the Bush administration during the run-up to the invasion of Iraq in 2003, it may have made a crucial difference to American political and public opinion, and consequently the invasion might not have gone ahead. Carter states that "one of the defenses of the Bush administration...has been, okay, we must be more correct in our actions than the world thinks because Great Britain is backing us. So I think the combination of Bush and Blair giving their support to this tragedy in Iraq has strengthened the effort and has made the opposition less effective, and prolonged the war and increased the tragedy that has resulted." Carter expressed his hope that Blair's successor, Gordon Brown, would be "less enthusiastic" about Bush's Iraq policy.[102]

In June 2005, Carter urged the closing of the Guantanamo Bay Prison in Cuba, which has been a focal point for recent claims of prisoner abuse.[103]

In September 2006, Carter was interviewed on the BBC's current affairs program Newsnight, voicing his concern at the increasing influence of the Religious Right on US politics.[104]

Due to his status as former President, Carter was a superdelegate to the 2008 Democratic National Convention. Carter announced his endorsement of Senator (now president) Barack Obama. This occurred on June 3, 2008, near the end of the primary season.[citation needed]

Speaking to the English Monthly Forward Magazine of Syria, Carter was asked to give one word that came to mind when mentioning President George W. Bush. His answer was: the end of a very disappointing administration. His reaction to mentioning Barack Obama was: Honesty, intelligence, and politically adept.[105]

In 2009 he put weight behind allegations by Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, pertaining to United States involvement in the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt by a civilian-military junta, saying that Washington knew about the coup and may have taken part.[106]

Death penalty

Carter continues to speak out against the death penalty in the US and abroad. Most recently, in his letter to the Governor of New Mexico, Bill Richardson, Carter urged him to sign a bill to eliminate the death penalty and institute life in prison without parole instead. The bill has already been passed by the state House and Senate. Carter wrote: As you know, the United States is one of the few countries, along with nations such as Saudi Arabia, China, and Cuba, which still carry out the death penalty despite the ongoing tragedy of wrongful conviction and gross racial and class-based disparities that make impossible the fair implementation of this ultimate punishment.[107]

Carter also called for commutations of death sentences for many death row inmates, including Brian K. Baldwin (executed in 1999 in Alabama),[108] Kenneth Foster(sentence in Texas commuted in 2007)[109][110] and Troy Anthony Davis (Georgia, case pending).[111]

Torture

In a 2008 interview with Amnesty International, Carter criticized the alleged use of torture in Guantanamo Bay, saying that it "contravenes the basic principles on which this nation was founded."[112] He stated that the next President should publicly apologize upon his inauguration, and state that the United States will "never again torture prisoners."

Carter has been a prolific author in his post-presidency, writing 21 of his 23 books. Among these is one he co-wrote with his wife,Rosalynn, and a children's book illustrated by his daughter, Amy. They cover a variety of topics, including humanitarian work, aging, religion, human rights, and poetry.

Palestine Peace Not Apartheid

In his book Palestine Peace Not Apartheid, published in November 2006, Carter states:

Israel's continued control and colonization of Palestinian land have been the primary obstacles to a comprehensive peace agreement in the Holy Land.[113]

While he recognizes that Arab citizens in Israel proper have equal rights,[114] he declares that Israel's current policies in the Palestinian territories constitute "a system of apartheid, with two peoples occupying the same land, but completely separated from each other, with Israelis totally dominant and suppressing violence by depriving Palestinians of their basic human rights."[113] In an Op-Ed titled "Speaking Frankly about Israel and Palestine," published in the Los Angeles Times and other newspapers, Carter states:

The ultimate purpose of my book is to present facts about the Middle East that are largely unknown in America, to precipitate discussion and to help restart peace talks (now absent for six years) that can lead to permanent peace for Israel and its neighbors. Another hope is that Jews and other Americans who share this same goal might be motivated to express their views, even publicly, and perhaps in concert. I would be glad to help with that effort.[115]

While some – such as a former Special Rapporteur for both the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and the International Law Commission, as well as a member of the Israeli Knesset – have praised Carter for speaking frankly about Palestinians in Israeli occupied lands, others – including the envoy to the Middle East under Clinton, as well as the first director of the Carter Center[116][117] – have accused him of anti-Israeli bias. Specifically, these critics have alleged significant factual errors, omissions and misstatements in the book.[118][119] Apparently angered by Carter's book, Israeli security refused to provide Carter protection during the first part of an April 2008 visit.[120]

The 2007 documentary film, Man from Plains, follows President Carter during his tour for the controversial book and other Humanitarian Efforts.[121]

In December 2009, Carter apologized for any words or deeds that may have upset the Jewish community in an open letter meant to improve an often tense relationship. He said he was offering an Al Het, a prayer said on Yom Kippur, the Jewish Day of Atonement.

Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, are also well-known for their work as volunteers with Habitat for Humanity, a Georgia-based philanthropy that helps low-income working people to build and buy their own homes.

He teaches Sunday school and is a deacon in the Maranatha Baptist Church in his hometown of Plains, Georgia.[123] In 2000, Carter severed ties with the Southern Baptist Convention, saying the group's doctrines did not align with his Christian beliefs.[124] In April 2006, Carter, former-President Bill Clinton and Mercer University President Bill Underwood initiated the New Baptist Covenant. The broadly inclusive movement seeks to unite Baptists of all races, cultures and convention affiliations. Eighteen Baptist leaders representing more than 20 million Baptists across North America backed the group as an alternative to the Southern Baptist Convention. The group held its first meeting in Atlanta, January 30 through February 1, 2008.[125]

Carter's hobbies include painting,[126] fly-fishing, woodworking, cycling, tennis, and skiing.

The Carters have three sons, one daughter, eight grandsons, three granddaughters, and one great-grandson.

He is Elvis Presley's sixth cousin.[127]

Honors and awards

 

 

Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, are also well-known for their work as volunteers with Habitat for Humanity, a Georgia-based philanthropy that helps low-income working people to build and buy their own homes.

He teaches Sunday school and is a deacon in the Maranatha Baptist Church in his hometown of Plains, Georgia.[123] In 2000, Carter severed ties with the Southern Baptist Convention, saying the group's doctrines did not align with his Christian beliefs.[124] In April 2006, Carter, former-President Bill Clinton and Mercer University President Bill Underwood initiated the New Baptist Covenant. The broadly inclusive movement seeks to unite Baptists of all races, cultures and convention affiliations. Eighteen Baptist leaders representing more than 20 million Baptists across North America backed the group as an alternative to the Southern Baptist Convention. The group held its first meeting in Atlanta, January 30 through February 1, 2008.[125]

Carter's hobbies include painting,[126] fly-fishing, woodworking, cycling, tennis, and skiing.

The Carters have three sons, one daughter, eight grandsons, three granddaughters, and one great-grandson.

He is Elvis Presley's sixth cousin.[127]

Honors and awards

Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, are also well-known for their work as volunteers with Habitat for Humanity, a Georgia-based philanthropy that helps low-income working people to build and buy their own homes.

He teaches Sunday school and is a deacon in the Maranatha Baptist Church in his hometown of Plains, Georgia.[123] In 2000, Carter severed ties with the Southern Baptist Convention, saying the group's doctrines did not align with his Christian beliefs.[124] In April 2006, Carter, former-President Bill Clinton and Mercer University President Bill Underwood initiated the New Baptist Covenant. The broadly inclusive movement seeks to unite Baptists of all races, cultures and convention affiliations. Eighteen Baptist leaders representing more than 20 million Baptists across North America backed the group as an alternative to the Southern Baptist Convention. The group held its first meeting in Atlanta, January 30 through February 1, 2008.[125]

Carter's hobbies include painting,[126] fly-fishing, woodworking, cycling, tennis, and skiing.

The Carters have three sons, one daughter, eight grandsons, three granddaughters, and one great-grandson.

He is Elvis Presley's sixth cousin.[127]

Honors and awards

Carter has received honorary degrees from many American and foreign colleges and universities. They include:

Among the honors Carter has received are the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1999 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002. Others include:

  • Freedom of the City of Newcastle upon Tyne, England, 1977
  • Silver Buffalo Award, Boy Scouts of America, 1978
  • Gold medal, International Institute for Human Rights, 1979
  • International Mediation medal, American Arbitration Association, 1979
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., Nonviolent Peace Prize, 1979
  • International Human Rights Award, Synagogue Council of America, 1979
  • Conservationist of the Year Award, 1979
  • Harry S. Truman Public Service Award, 1981
  • Ansel Adams Conservation Award, Wilderness Society, 1982
  • Human Rights Award, International League of Human Rights, 1983
  • World Methodist Peace Award, 1985
  • Albert Schweitzer Prize for Humanitarianism, 1987
  • Edwin C. Whitehead Award, National Center for Health Education, 1989
  • Jefferson Award, American Institute of Public Service, 1990
  • Liberty Medal, National Constitution Center, 1990
  • Spirit of America Award, National Council for the Social Studies, 1990
  • Physicians for Social Responsibility Award, 1991
  • Aristotle Prize, Alexander S. Onassis Foundation, 1991
  • W. Averell Harriman Democracy Award, National Democratic Institute for International Affairs, 1992
  • Spark M. Matsunaga Medal of Peace, US Institute of Peace, 1993
  • Humanitarian Award, CARE International, 1993
  • Conservationist of the Year Medal, National Wildlife Federation, 1993
  • Rotary Award for World Understanding, 1994
  • J. William Fulbright Prize for International Understanding, 1994
  • National Civil Rights Museum Freedom Award, 1994
  • UNESCO Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize, 1994
  • Great Cross of the Order of Vasco Nunéz de Balboa, Panama, 1995
  • Bishop John T. Walker Distinguished Humanitarian Award, Africare, 1996
  • Humanitarian of the Year, GQ Awards, 1996
  • Kiwanis International Humanitarian Award, 1996
  • Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development, 1997
  • Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Awards for Humanitarian Contributions to the Health of Humankind, National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, 1997
  • United Nations Human Rights Award, 1998
  • The Hoover Medal, 1998
  • The Delta Prize for Global Understanding, University of Georgia, 1999
  • International Child Survival Award, UNICEF Atlanta, 1999
  • William Penn Mott, Jr., Park Leadership Award, National Parks Conservation Association, 2000
  • Zayed International Prize for the Environment, 2001
  • Jonathan M. Daniels Humanitarian Award, VMI, 2001
  • Herbert Hoover Humanitarian Award, Boys & Girls Clubs of America, 2001
  • Christopher Award, 2002
  • Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album, National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, 2007[128]
  • Berkeley Medal, University of California campus, May 2, 2007
  • International Award for Excellence and Creativity, Palestinian Authority, 2009[129]
  • Mahatma Gandhi Global Nonviolence Award, Mahatma Gandhi Center for Global Nonviolence, James Madison University (to be awarded September 21, 2009, inHarrisonburg, Virginia, and to be shared with his wife, Rosalynn Carter)
  • Recipient of 2009 American Peace Award along with Rosalynn Carter[130]

In 1998, the US Navy named the third and last Seawolf-class submarine honoring former President Carter and his service as a submariner officer. It became one of the first US Navy vessels to be named for a person living at the time of naming.[131]

Participation in ceremonial events

Carter has participated in many ceremonial events such as the opening of his own presidential library and those of Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and Bill Clinton. He has also participated in many forums, lectures, panels, funerals and other events. Carter delivered a eulogy at the funeral of Coretta Scott King and, most recently, at the funeral of his former political rival, but later his close, personal friend and diplomatic collaborator, Gerald Ford. Whether Carter will be included in thePresidential $1 Coin Program depends on whether he is still alive in 2014.

Race in politics

Carter ignited debate in September 2009 when he stated, "I think an overwhelming portion of the intensely demonstrated animosity toward President Barack Obama is based on the fact that he is a black man, that he is African-American."[132][133] Obama disagreed with Carter's assessment. On CNN Obama stated, "Are there people out there who don't like me because of race? I'm sure there are...that's not the overriding issue here."[134]

Funeral and burial plans

Carter intends to be buried in front of his home in Plains, Georgia. In contrast, most Presidents since Herbert Hoover have been buried at their presidential library or presidential museum, with the exception of John F. Kennedy, who is buried at Arlington National Cemetery, and Lyndon B. Johnson, who is buried at his own ranch. Both President Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, were born in Plains. Carter also noted that a funeral in Washington, D.C. with visitation at the Carter Center is being planned as well.[135]

Pop culture

Carter is portrayed as a member of a superhero team in the animated feature The X-Presidents on a Saturday Night Live TV program.[136]

Carter is also featured in the animated sitcom King of the Hill in the episode "The Father, The Son and J.C."


The world's War Machine that it is argued by conspiracy author David Icke has been mastminded financed and promoted by the Bilderberg Group, the Trilaterial Commission, the Council on Foreign Relations and a Freemason as way of achieving their various economic, financial and social aims in the world as the world shadow government



Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945) was the 32nd President of theUnited States 
a founding senior member of the Bilderberg Group, The Trilaterial Commission, the Council on Foreign Relations and a Freemason
In 1901, President William McKinley was assassinated, and Roosevelt became president at the age of 42,
 taking office at the youngest age of any U.S. President

Franklin D. Roosevelt
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In office
March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945
Vice President John N. Garner (1933–1941)
Henry A. Wallace (1941–1945)
Harry S. Truman (1945)
Preceded by Herbert Hoover
Succeeded by Harry S. Truman

In office
January 1, 1929 – December 31, 1932
Lieutenant Herbert H. Lehman
Preceded by Alfred E. Smith
Succeeded by Herbert H. Lehman

In office
1913 – 1920
President Woodrow Wilson

In office
January 1, 1911 – March 17, 1913
Constituency Dutchess County

Born January 30, 1882
Hyde Park, New York
Died April 12, 1945 (aged 63)
Warm Springs, Georgia
Resting place Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, Hyde Park, New York
Birth name Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Eleanor Roosevelt
Children Anna Roosevelt Halsted
James Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr. (III)
Elliott Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr.
John Aspinwall Roosevelt
Alma mater Harvard University
Columbia Law School
Occupation Lawyer (Corporate)
Religion Episcopal
Signature undefined

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FDR in 1893

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Young Franklin Roosevelt with his father and Helen R. Roosevelt, sailing in 1899.

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Franklin and Eleanor atCampobello Island, Canada, in 1904

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FDR as Assistant Secretary for the Navy.

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Cox/Roosevelt poster

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One of two known photographs of Roosevelt in a wheelchair

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Governor Roosevelt poses with Al Smith for a publicity shot in Albany, New York, 1930.

Roosevelt and Hoover on Inauguration Day, 1933.

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Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers during the depression in California, centering on Florence Owens Thompson, a mother of seven children at age 32, March 1936.

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Dust storms were frequent during the 1930s; this one occurred in Texas in 1935. See the Dust Bowl.

Roosevelt and Winston Churchillmeet at Argentia, Newfoundland aboard HMS Prince of Wales during their 1941 secret meeting to develop the Atlantic Charter.

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Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 8, 1941.

Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shekof China (left), Roosevelt (middle), and Winston Churchill (right) at theCairo Conference in 1943

The "Big Three" Allied leaders (left to right) at Yalta February, 1945: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin.

Roosevelt meets with King Abdulaziz of Saudi Arabia onboard the USS Quincy at the Great Bitter Lake

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Roosevelt's horse-drawn casket during his Pennsylvania Avenue funeral procession.

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Official White House portrait of Franklin D. Roosevelt

The coat of arms of the Roosevelt family prior to Franklin Roosevelt's personal modifications.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Collection of video clips of the president

See also

Franklin D. Roosevelt

 Assuming the Presidency at the depth of the Great Depression, Franklin D. Roosevelt helped the American people regain faith in themselves. He brought hope as he promised prompt, vigorous action, and asserted in his Inaugural Address, "the only thing we have to fear is fear itself." Born in 1882 at Hyde Park, New York--now a national historic site--he attended Harvard University and Columbia Law School. On St. Patrick's Day, 1905, he married Eleanor Roosevelt.

Following the example of his fifth cousin, President Theodore Roosevelt, whom he greatly admired, Franklin D. Roosevelt entered public service through politics, but as a Democrat. He won election to the New York Senate in 1910. President Wilson appointed him Assistant Secretary of the Navy, and he was the Democratic nominee for Vice President in 1920. In the summer of 1921, when he was 39, disaster hit-he was stricken with poliomyelitis. Demonstrating indomitable courage, he fought to regain the use of his legs, particularly through swimming. At the 1924 Democratic Convention he dramatically appeared on crutches to nominate Alfred E. Smith as "the Happy Warrior." In 1928 Roosevelt became Governor of New York. He was elected President in November 1932, to the first of four terms. By March there were 13,000,000 unemployed, and almost every bank was closed. In his first "hundred days," he proposed, and Congress enacted, a sweeping program to bring recovery to business and agriculture, relief to the unemployed and to those in danger of losing farms and homes, and reform, especially through the establishment of the Tennessee Valley Authority. By 1935 the Nation had achieved some measure of recovery, but businessmen and bankers were turning more and more against Roosevelt's New Deal program. They feared his experiments, were appalled because he had taken the Nation off the gold standard and allowed deficits in the budget, and disliked the concessions to labor. Roosevelt responded with a new program of reform: Social Security, heavier taxes on the wealthy, new controls over banks and public utilities, and an enormous work relief program for the unemployed. In 1936 he was re-elected by a top-heavy margin. Feeling he was armed with a popular mandate, he sought legislation to enlarge the Supreme Court, which had been invalidating key New Deal measures. Roosevelt lost the Supreme Court battle, but a revolution in constitutional law took place. Thereafter the Government could legally regulate the economy. Roosevelt had pledged the United States to the "good neighbor" policy, transforming the Monroe Doctrine from a unilateral American manifesto into arrangements for mutual action against aggressors. He also sought through neutrality legislation to keep the United States out of the war in Europe, yet at the same time to strengthen nations threatened or attacked. When France fell and England came under siege in 1940, he began to send Great Britain all possible aid short of actual military involvement. When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Roosevelt directed organization of the Nation's manpower and resources for global war. Feeling that the future peace of the world would depend upon relations between the United States and Russia, he devoted much thought to the planning of a United Nations, in which, he hoped, international difficulties could be settled. As the war drew to a close, Roosevelt's health deteriorated, and on April 12, 1945, while at Warm Springs, Georgia, he died of a cerebral hemorrhage. 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945) was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. The only American president elected to more than two terms, he was often referred to by his initials,FDR. Roosevelt won his first of four presidential elections in 1932, while the United States was in the depths of the Great Depression. FDR's combination of optimism and economic activism is often credited with keeping the country's economic crisis from developing into a political crisis. He led the United States through most of World War II, and died in office of acerebral hemorrhage, shortly before the war ended. Roosevelt named his approach to the economic situation the New Deal; it consisted of legislation pushed through Congress as well as executive orders. Executive orders included the bank holiday declared when he first came to office; legislation created new government agencies, such as the Works Progress Administration and the National Recovery Administration, with the intent of creating new jobs for the unemployed. Other legislation provided direct assistance to individuals, such as the Social Security Act. As World War II began in 1939, with Japanese occupation of countries on the western Pacific rim and the rise of Hitler inGermany, FDR kept the US on an ostensibly neutral course. In March 1941, Roosevelt provided Lend-Lease aid to the countries fighting against Nazi Germany, with Great Britain the recipient of the most assistance. With the Japaneseattack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Roosevelt immediately asked for and received a declaration of war against Japan. Germany subsequently declared war on the United States on December 11, 1941. The nearly total mobilization of the US economy to support the war effort caused a rapid economic recovery. Roosevelt dominated the American political scene, not only during the twelve years of his presidency, but for decades afterwards. FDR's coalition melded together such disparate elements as Southern whites and African Americans in the cities of the North. Roosevelt's political impact also resonated on the world stage long after his death, with the United Nations and Bretton Woods as examples of his administration's wide ranging impact. Roosevelt is rated by historians as one of the greatest U.S. Presidents.

Henry Kissinger with George Bush both members of the Bilderberg Group

Bill Clinton when he was young received a Rhodes Scholarship and later attended Bilderberg Group meetings, his wife Hilliary Clinton also was seen attending the 2008 Bilderberg meeting held in Ottowa Canada. Later on Bill Clinotn became president of the USA twice, and his wife Hillary Clinton nearky became President of the USA, but ended up in one of th emlst power positions in USA Politics as Secretary of State and some say Hillary Clinton is the main representative of the Bilderberg Group in the USA White House, ans in fact may may more real power in the running of America than the president Barrack Obama.
The Rothchild Family...who seem to be healivy involved with the Bilderberg Group and its sister organisations the Trilateral Commission and the Council For Foreign Relations


Newspaper Article_Elite Are Ever Elusive

Inside the secretive Bilderberg Group
"There need to be places where these people can think about the main challenges ahead, co-ordinate where policies should be going, and find out where there could be a consensus..."....Professor Kees van der Pijl
"Business influences society and politics influences society - that's purely common sense..."...Will Hutton, an economic analyst and former newspaper editor who attended a Bilderberg meeting in 1997, says people take part in these networks in order to influence the way the world works, to create what he calls "the international common sense" about policy. 



Inside the secretive Bilderberg Group - BBC News
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4290944.stm
Bilderberg's head Viscount Davignon plays down the group's role in setting the international agenda
Bill Clinton was featured at a Bilderberg meeting while he was governor of Arkansas

How much influence do private networks of the rich and powerful have on government policies and international relations? One group, the Bilderberg, has often attracted speculation that it forms a shadowy global government. As part of the BBC's Who Runs Your World? series, Bill Hayton tries to find out more. More
How much influence do private networks of the rich and powerful have on government policies and international relations? One group, the Bilderberg, has often attracted speculation that it forms a shadowy global government. As part of the BBC's Who Runs Your World? series, Bill Hayton tries to find out more

The chairman of the secretive - he prefers the word private - Bilderberg Group is 73-year-old Viscount Etienne Davignon, corporate director and former European Commissioner.

In his office, on a private floor above the Brussels office of the Suez conglomerate lined with political cartoons of himself, he told me what he thought of allegations that Bilderberg is a global conspiracy secretly ruling the world.

"It is unavoidable and it doesn't matter," he says. "There will always be people who believe in conspiracies but things happen in a much more incoherent fashion."

Lack of publicity

In an extremely rare interview, he played down the importance of Bilderberg in setting the international agenda. "What can come out of our meetings is that it is wrong not to try to deal with a problem. But a real consensus, an action plan containing points 1, 2 and 3? The answer is no. People are much too sensible to believe they can do that."

Every year since 1954, a small network of rich and powerful people have held a discussion meeting about the state of the trans-Atlantic alliance and the problems facing Europe and the US.

Organised by a steering committee of two people from each of about 18 countries, the Bilderberg Group (named after the Dutch hotel in which it held its first meeting) brings together about 120 leading business people and politicians.

At this year's meeting in Germany, the audience included the heads of the World Bank and European Central Bank, Chairmen or Chief Executives from Nokia, BP, Unilever, DaimlerChrysler and Pepsi - among other multi-national corporations, editors from five major newspapers, members of parliament, ministers, European commissioners, the crown prince of Belgium and the queen of the Netherlands.

"I don't think (we are) a global ruling class because I don't think a global ruling class exists. I simply think it's people who have influence interested to speak to other people who have influence," Viscount Davignon says.

"Bilderberg does not try to reach conclusions - it does not try to say 'what we should do'. Everyone goes away with their own feeling and that allows the debate to be completely open, quite frank - and to see what the differences are.

"Business influences society and politics influences society - that's purely common sense. It's not that business contests the right of democratically-elected leaders to lead".

For Bilderberg's critics the fact that there is almost no publicity about the annual meetings is proof that they are up to no good. Jim Tucker, editor of a right-wing newspaper, the American Free Press for example, alleges they organise wars and elect and depose political leaders. He describes the group as simply 'evil'. So where does the truth lie?

Professor Kees van der Pijl of Sussex University in Britain says such private networks of corporate and political leaders play an informal but crucial role in the modern world.

"There need to be places where these people can think about the main challenges ahead, co-ordinate where policies should be going, and find out where there could be a consensus."

'Common sense'

Will Hutton, an economic analyst and former newspaper editor who attended a Bilderberg meeting in 1997, says people take part in these networks in order to influence the way the world works, to create what he calls "the international common sense" about policy.

"On every issue that might influence your business you will hear at first-hand the people who are actually making those decisions and you will play a part in helping them to make those decisions and formulating the common sense," he says.

And that "common sense" is one which supports the interests of Bilderberg's main participants - in particular free trade. Viscount Davignon says that at the annual meetings, "automatically around the table you have internationalists" - people who support the work of the World Trade Organisation, trans-Atlantic co-operation and European integration.

Bilderberg meetings often feature future political leaders shortly before they become household names. Bill Clinton went in 1991 while still governor of Arkansas, Tony Blair was there two years later while still an opposition MP. All the recent presidents of the European Commission attended Bilderberg meetings before they were appointed.

'Secret Government'

This has led to accusations that the group pushes its favoured politicians into high office. But Viscount Davignon says his steering committee are simply excellent talent spotters. The steering committee "does its best assessment of who are the bright new boys or girls in the beginning phase of their career who would like to get known."

"It's not a total accident, but it's not a forecast and if they go places it's not because of Bilderberg, it's because of themselves," Viscount Davignon says.

But its critics say Bilderberg's selection process gives an extra boost to aspiring politicians whose views are friendly to big business. None of this, however, is easy to prove - or disprove.

Observers like Will Hutton argue that such private networks have both good and bad sides. They are unaccountable to voters but, at the same time, they do keep the international system functioning. And there are limits to their power - a point which Bilderberg chairman was keen to stress, "When people say this is a secret government of the world I say that if we were a secret government of the world we should be bloody ashamed of ourselves."

Informal and private networks like Bilderberg have helped to oil the wheels of global politics and globalisation for the past half a century. In the eyes of critics they have undermined democracy, but their supporters believe they are crucial to modern democracy's success. And so long as business and politics remain mutually dependent, they will continue to thrive. 










noliesradio.org/images/bilderbergBOOK.jpg

The Bilderberg Group: Rulers of the World _ on Guns & Butter

By noliesradio
This show was broadcast August 17, 2009.
 noliesradio.org/archives/4417

Bilderberg Group
GUNS AND BUTTER with Bonnie Faulkner

The Bilderberg Group: Rulers of the World — Daniel Estulin 
Interview with investigator and author, Daniel Estulin, on his book, “The True Story of the Bilderberg Group“, which describes an annual gathering where the European and American political elite, and the wealthiest CEOs of the world, all come together to discuss the economic and political future of humanity. Highly secretive, the press has never been allowed to attend, nor have statements ever been released on the group’s conclusions or discussions, which have great ramifications for all the citizens of the world. The book also includes sections on the Council on Foreign Relations and the Trilateral Commission.



Loose Change 9/11: An American Coup. 
Directed by Dylan Avery and dramatically narrated by Daniel Sunjata of FX's Rescue Me, this is the latest and most comprehensive version of Loose Change. It covers in depth why the Official 911 story does not hold water. Loaded with powerful, new footage and in-depth interviews with the likes of Steven Earl Jones, an American physicist who has discovered undetonated explosive material in multiple samples of dust from the World Trade Center collapses, this documentary presents a wide array of evidence both known and unknown...until now. On Google alone, the preceding versions ofLoose Change have been viewed nearly 125 million times. On YouTube the film has a combined viewership of over 30 million worldwide. More than two million copies of the DVD have been sold, and thousands more have been given away. The original Loose Change film has been translated into twenty-six languages and has spawned a truth movement around the world. The initial film had a budget of $2,000. This latest version, Loose Change 9/11: An American Coup, has an estimated budget of $1,000,000.
This is a newly released DVD.
$14.95

 
http://images.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://img75.imageshack.us/img75/7932/bilderberg0mn.jpg&imgrefurl=http://no-for-nwo.blogspot.com/2008/06/bilderberg-group.html&usg=__iC0U0wBF1GOLFZfGAhCH_vDG2cg=&h=379

no-for-nwo.blogspot.com/2008/06/bilderberg-gr...

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WUTS UP KATIE HERE ;) IF U DISAGREE, DO UR RESEARCH, COME UP WITH THE EVIDENCE TO DISPROVE ME, I BET U WONT BE ABLE TO ;) ANY QUESTIONS, HELP? FEEL FREE TO WRITE, I WILL GET BACK TO YOU..PEACE OUT ;)

THURSDAY, JUNE 5, 2008 The Bilderberg group




WHO:The bilderberg group. A couple of hundred of worlds elite, who control the worlds banking system, who control when wars happen, who control the food and the oil prices, they control puppets like Hillary Clinton, Barack Obama, and John McCain and yes they did already choose , who the next president will be.
Last years Bilderberg meet which, happened in Istambul, Turkey from May 31 to June 3 the attendees included:
George Alogoskoufis, Minister of Economy and Finance (Greece); Ali Babacan, Minister of Economic Affairs (Turkey); Edward Balls, Economic Secretary to the Treasury (UK); Francisco Pinto Balsemão, Chairman and CEO, IMPRESA, S.G.P.S.; Former Prime Minister (Portugal); José M. Durão Barroso, President, European Commission (Portugal/International); Franco Bernabé, Vice Chariman, Rothschild Europe (Italy); Nicolas Beytout, Editor-in-Chief, Le Figaro (France); Carl Bildt, Former Prime Minister (Sweden); Hubert Burda, Publisher and CEO, Hubert Burda Media Holding (Belgium); Philippe Camus, CEO, EADS (France); Henri de Castries, Chairman of the Management Board and CEO, AXA (France); Juan Luis Cebrian, Grupo PRISA media group (Spain): more info on and more attendees:http://www.jonesreport.com/articles/210507_estulin_bilderberg.html


WHY: World domination they wanna enslave us, they wanna reduce the earth's population, increase the price of gas, and food....http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=endgame+&hl=eN&sitesearch=#
Even a Portuguese Newspaper admitted Bilderberg Kingmaker power:

Updates:From Alex Jones and Jim Tucker who are actually covering, the meeting, which the mainstream media is not doing why? Why would they meet in secret if they are the good guys?The Bilderbergs are evil and they are here to destroy us.......will u let them?

http://www.infowars.com/?p=2545_ Jim tucker onthe scene of Bilderberg

http://www.infowars.com/?p=2544 Spooks infest Mariot Hotel as bilderberg begins

http://www.infowars.com/?p=2548 Alex Jones and Jim Ticker report on the meet.

BILDERBERG: THE SYSTEMIC CONSPIRACY - Daniel Estulin

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I-15EjHCzds


More? Dutch Embassy changes bilderberg 2008 press release.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A-61ilgFH6U






 
Bilderberg Group Video 1
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Bilderberg Video Two
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Bilderberg Club 
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Hotel de Bilderberg, Oosterbeek, the Netherlands - scene of the first Bilderberg Conference in 1954
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Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke leaving the 2008 Bilderberg Conference
.

The Bilderberg Group, Bilderberg conference, or Bilderberg Club is an unofficial, annual, invitation-only conference of around 130 guests, most of whom are persons of great influence in the fields of politics, business, banking, and media. Each conference is under intense secrecy and security, with the last meeting guarded by police, security services, military helicopters and even fighter jets.[1][2]

The group meets annually at hotels or resorts throughout the world—for two consecutive years in Europe followed by a year in theUnited States or Canada. This tradition appeared to be broken in 2008 when the meeting was held in Chantilly, Virginia, so as to give easier access to those associated with the US elections. The 2009 Bilderberg meeting took place from 14-16 May in Athens, Greece.[3]

 

 

 

 

 Participants

The steering committee does not publish a list of attendees, though some participants have publicly discussed their attendance. Historically, attendee lists have been weighted towards politicians, bankers, and directors of large businesses.[16]

Heads of state, including Juan Carlos I of Spain and Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, have attended meetings.[8][17] Prominent politicians from North America and Europe are past attendees. In past years, board members from many large publicly-traded corporations have attended, including IBM, Xerox, Royal Dutch Shell, Nokia and Daimler.[8]

The 2009 meeting participants in Greece included: Greek prime minister, Kostas Karamanlis; Finnish prime minister, Matti Vanhanen[18]; Sweden foreign minister, Carl Bildt; U.S. State Department number two, James Steinberg; U.S. Treasury Secretary,Timothy Geithner; World Bank president, Robert Zoellick; European Commission head, José Manuel Barroso; Queen Sofia of Spain; and Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands.[19]

European Union

In a European Parliament session in Brussels, Mario Borghezio, an Italian member of European Parliament, questioned the nominations of Bilderberg and Trilateralattendees for the posts of EU President and EU foreign minister.[20][21]

In 2009 the group had a dinner meeting at Castle of the Valley of the Duchess in Brussels, in the 12th of November, with the participation of Herman Van Rompuy, who later became the President of the European Council. The newspaper De Tijd (and several others afterwards) reported that, at this meeting, Van Rompuy showed support for a European green tax: "Van Rompuy told the elite club that the European government leaders are increasingly becoming proponents of Europe tapping off green income, so that the contributions of member states to the EU can be decreased." [22] [23] [24]

Conspiracy theories

Because of its secrecy and refusal to issue news releases, the group is frequently accused of secretive and nefarious world plots.[25] Critics include the John Birch Society,[26] the Canadian writer Daniel Estulin, British writer David Icke, American writer Jim Tucker and radio host Alex Jones.

Bilderberg founding member and, for 30 years, a steering committee member, Denis Healey has said:[27]

To say we were striving for a one-world government is exaggerated, but not wholly unfair. Those of us in Bilderberg felt we couldn't go on forever fighting one another for nothing and killing people and rendering millions homeless. So we felt that a single community throughout the world would be a good thing.

According to the American Friends of Bilderberg, the 2008 agenda dealt "mainly with a nuclear free world, cyber terrorism, Africa, Russia, finance, protectionism, US-EU relations, Afghanistan and Pakistan, Islam and Iran".[12]

Origins of conspiracy theories

Jonathan Duffy, writing in BBC News Online Magazine states:

No reporters are invited in and while confidential minutes of meetings are taken, names are not noted... In the void created by such aloofness, an extraordinary conspiracy theory has grown up around the group that alleges the fate of the world is largely decided by Bilderberg.[28]

According to the investigative journalist Chip Berlet, the origins of Bilderberger conspiracy theories can be traced to activist Phyllis Schlafly. In Berlet's 1994 reportRight Woos Left, published by Political Research Associates, he writes:

The views on intractable godless communism expressed by Schwarz were central themes in three other bestselling books which were used to mobilize support for the 1964 Barry Goldwater campaign. The best known was Phyllis Schlafly's A Choice, Not an Echo, which suggested a conspiracy theory in which the Republican Party was secretly controlled by elitist intellectuals dominated by members of the Bilderberger group, whose policies would pave the way for global communist conquest.[29]

Before the 2001 meeting, a report in the Guardian stated:

...the press have never been allowed access and all discussions are under Chatham House rules (no quoting). Not surprisingly, such ground rules, while attracting publicity-shy financiers, have also fuelled the fantasies of conspiracy theorists. The truth is probably more mundane: powerful people like meeting each other, but they argue that they need privacy if there is to be serious, honest discussions: the G8 summits are a graphic example of how all the meaningful exchanges are kept well away from the pre-prepared final communiques drawn up by civil servants.[30]
 
 
 

Recent meetings

 

 

 

 

 

 

Recent meetings:

Further reading

See also

Trilateral Commission, established by David Rockefeller in 1972 after the Bilderberg Group refused to incorporate Japan.[35]

References

  1. ^ a b "Guardian.co.uk Charlie Skelton's Bilderberg files". Retrieved 15 May 2009.
  2. ^ "Guardian.co.uk Charlie Skelton's Bilderberg files". Retrieved 17 December 2009.
  3. ^ a b "The most powerful elite will meet in Athens". GRReporter. 23 March 2009. "the club will organize its meeting in Athens between 14 and 16 May"
  4. ^ a b Hatch, Alden (1962). "The Hôtel de Bilderberg". H.R.H.Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands: An authorized biography. London: Harrap. ISBN B0000CLLN4. "The idea was to get two people from each country who would give the conservative and liberal slant"
  5. ^ a b Valerie Aubourg (June 2003). Organizing Atlanticism: the Bilderberg Group and the Atlantic Institute 1952-63.
  6. ^ a b c Rockefeller, David (2002). Memoirs. Random House. pp. 412. ISBN 0-679-40588-7.
  7. ^ a b "Inside the secretive Bilderberg Group". BBC News. 29 September 2005. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  8. ^ a b c "Bilderberg Meeting of 1997 Assembles". PR Newswire. 13 June 1997.
  9. ^ "Parliamentary questions: Answer given by Mr Prodi on behalf of the Commission". European Parliament. 15 May 2003.
  10. ^ Entry for Conrad Black, The International Who's Who. Europa Publications. 2000.
  11. ^ "Bilderberg: List of Invitees". United States Department of Defense. 31 January 1996. Retrieved 6 June 2009.
  12. ^ a b c "Bilderberg Announces 2008 Conference". BusinessWire. 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
  13. ^ Marcus Klöckner (17 May 2009). "Bilderberg meetings remain a mystery". Stars and Stripes.
  14. ^ a b "Twenty-fifth Bilderberg meeting held". Facts on File World News Digest. May 14, 1977. "Alec Douglas-Home, the former prime minister of Great Britain, chaired the conference, replacing Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, who had previously headed the Bilderberg invitation committee. (Prince Bernhard had resigned all public positions after the 1976 Lockheed scandal.)"
  15. ^ Who's Who. 1999.
  16. ^ Caroline Moorehead (18 April 1977). "An exclusive club, perhaps without power, but certainly with influence: The Bilderberg group". The Times.
  17. ^ Mark Oliver (4 June 2004). "The Bilderberg group". The Guardian.
  18. ^ "Prime Minister Vanhanen and Minister of Finance Katainen to attend Bilderberg Conference". Finnish Government. 13 May 2009.
  19. ^ "Bilderberg Group Meets In Athens Amid Tight Security". NASDAQ.
  20. ^ http://www.ilvelino.it/articolo.php?Id=997488
  21. ^ "Premier steekt nek uit op Bilderberg-diner". HP/De Tijd. 21 November 2009. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
  22. ^ "Premier steekt nek uit op Bilderberg-diner". DE TIJD. 14 November 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
  23. ^ "Herman Van Rompuy, front-runner for presidency, wants EU-wide tax". TIMES ONLINE. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
  24. ^ "Van Rompuy shows his hand at Bilderberg Group dinner". Flanders Today. 14 November 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
  25. ^ "Right Woos Left"
  26. ^ Chip Berlet (1994). "Right Woos Left: John Birch Society". PublicEye.org.
  27. ^ Ronson, Jon (10 March 2001). "Who pulls the strings? (part 3)". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
  28. ^ Jonathan Duffy (3 June 2004). "Bilderberg: The ultimate conspiracy theory". BBC News.
  29. ^ Chip Berlet (1994). "The New Right & The Secular Humanism Conspiracy Theory".
  30. ^ Bunting, Madeleine Weekend break for the global elite guardian.co.uk Friday 25 May 2001 [1]
  31. ^ "Asia Times Online :: Asian News, Business and Economy.". Retrieved 22 August 2007.
  32. ^ Panetta, Alexander (2006). "Secretive Bilderbergers meet". www.thestar.com. Toronto Star Newspapers Limited. Retrieved 12 June 2006.
  33. ^ What was discussed at Bilderberg?, Turkish Daily News, 5 June 2007, accessed on 18 August 2007
  34. ^ "Balkenende to Meet Bush in Washington". NIS News Bulletin. 2008. Retrieved 25 May 2008.
  35. ^ "Japan–U.S. Relations—Past, Present and Future". The Daily Yomiuri. December 8, 1991. "Rockefeller: The idea (of creating the Trilateral Commission) was incorporated in a speech that I made in the spring of 1972 for the benefit of some industrial forums that the Chase held in different cities around Europe,... Then Zbig (Zbig Brzezinski) and I both attended a meeting of the Bilderberg Group ... and was shot down in flames. There was very little enthusiasm for the idea. I think they felt that they had a very congenial group, and they didn't want to have it interfered with by another element that would--I don't know what they thought, but in any case, they were not in favor."

External links

Categories: Bilderberg Group | Bilderberg Meetings | Globalization | International business | International nongovernmental organizations | Secret societies
 

 


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Map of countries by the number of politicians, which have attended one or more conferences organized by the Bilderberg Group


List of Bilderberg participants

The following is a list of prominent persons who have attended one or more conferences organized by the Bilderberg Group. The list is currently organized by category. It is not a complete list and it includes both living and deceased people. Where known, the year(s) they attended are denoted in brackets.

Royalty

Politics

United States

Presidents

Senators

Governors

United Kingdom

Prime Ministers

Belgium

Netherlands

France

Portugal

Finland

Iceland

Germany

Poland

Canada

Sweden

Norway

  • Siv Jensen (2009) - Seen in Alex Jones' Blueprint movie.

EU Commissioners

European Union Commissioners who have attended include:

UN, WTO, NATO and other International Organizations

Military

Financial institutions

Major corporations

University, institute and other academic

Media

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Bilderberg Meeting of 1997 Assembles". PR Newswire. 13 June 1997.
  2. ^ Video showing DSK, Queen Beatrix and James Wolfensohn among others at Bilderberg 2000
  3. ^ a b c d Welcome to ActivePaper
  4. ^ a b "Obituary - Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands". The Times. December 3, 2004. "Bernhard’s visits abroad provided the background for an enterprise which interested him greatly, the Bilderberg conferences at which, from 1954 onwards, statesmen, businessmen and intellectuals from Europe and America had private discussions once or twice a year. The idea of the conferences originated with Dr Joseph H. Retinger as a counter to the anti-Americanism in Western Europe."
  5. ^ Jon Ronson (March 28, 2001). "Exposed: The Secret Club Of Powermongers Who Really Rule The World". The Mirror. "Prince Charles and Bill Clinton have been to sessions."
  6. ^ Jean Stead (April 28, 1986). "Prince Charles attends meeting on South Africa". The Guardian (London). "The 34th Bilderberg conference ended at Gleneagles Hotel, Perthshire, yesterday after a debate on the South African crisis attended by Prince Charles. He arrived for the economic debate on Saturday and stayed overnight at the hotel."
  7. ^ Mark Oliver (June 4, 2004). "The Bilderberg group". The Guardian.
  8. ^ a b "'High Priests Of Globalization' In Istanbul". Turkish Daily News. May 31, 2007. "The Turkish state minister and chief negotiator, Ali Babacan, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Administrator Kemal Dervis, the Association of Turkish Industrialists and Businessmen (Tusiad) Chairwoman Arzuhan Dogan Yalcindag, Koc Holding Executive Board President Mustafa Koc and the Bogazici University rector, Prof Dr Ayse Soysal, will attend the meeting on behalf of Turkey. Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, Queen Sofia of Spain, Crown Prince Philippe of Belgium, Greek National Economy and Finance Minister Yeoryios Alogoskoufis, former Prime Minister Francisco Pinto Balsemao of Portugal, former Foreign Minister Michel Barnier of France, Foreign Minister Carl Bildt of Sweden, Finance Minister Anders Borg of Sweden, Foreign Trade Minister Frank Heemskerk of the Netherlands, Finance Minister Jyrki Katainen of Finland, former US secretary of state, Henry Kissinger, Agriculture Minister Christine Lagarde of France, Justice Minister Michael McDowell of Ireland, International Monetary Fund (IMF) Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato, the EU commissioner for enlargement, Olli Rehn, and the US ambassador to Turkey, Ross Wilson, are among foreign guests of the meeting. Meanwhile, tight security measures were taken in and around the Ritz Carlton Hotel, the venue of the meeting."
  9. ^ "Duke Of Edinburgh In Como Talks". The Times. April 03, 1965. p. 7. "The Duke of Edinburgh took part today in the opening session of the Bilderberg meeting at the Villa d'Este on Lake Como."
  10. ^ "Court Circular". The Times. April 03, 1967. p. 12.
  11. ^ Official List of Participants for the 2009 Bilderberg Meeting
  12. ^ a b c "World Leaders Attended Secret Bilderberg Meeting, The Spotlight Reports". PR Newswire. July 16, 1991. "Michael Boskin, chairman of the President's Council of Economic Advisors, is listed as sharing one session with Karl Otto Pohl, president of the Deutsche Bundesbank. (Boskin refused to answer The Spotlight's inquiries about what he said). Jack F. Matlock, U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union, was also listed on a panel exploring developments in the USSR. Robert B. Zoellick, under-secretary of state designate for economic affairs was listed on still another panel, as was Thomas W. Simons, U.S. ambassador to Poland. David Rockefeller, former chairman of the Chase-Manhattan Bank and a leading Bilderberger, was reported as pushing for expanded free trade through both the Mexico and GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) negotiations now under way. John S. Reed, chairman of Citibank's parent corporation, was also on the list. Two U.S. governors, Douglas Wilder of Virginia and Bill Clinton of Arkansas are on the list with Diane Feinstein, the ex-mayor of San Francisco who lost a 1990 bid for governor of California. Sens. John Chafee (R-R.I.) and Bennett Johnston (D-La.) are on the list of the American delegation, by far the largest at Baden-Baden. Top industrialists, lawyers, and diplomats dominate the list. The only U.S. labor leader was Lynn Williams, president of the United Steelworkers of America. Arthur Dunkel, director general of GATT, which is currently shaping a completely free trade world in Geneva, and Etienne Davignon, former vice chairman of the European Community, were listed. Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands and Queen Sophia of Spainwere also on the list with the prime ministers of Belgium, Luxemburg and Netherlands and the federal chancellor of Austria. The press lords listed included Conrad Black, the Canadian publisher who recently purchased London's Daily Telegraph and the Jerusalem Post. George Ball, former undersecretary of state, was said to cause an "uproar" when he warned that a Mideast peace conference, if held, would "explode" in the present volatile political climate in that region. Harlan Cleveland, another former high State Department official, was reported to have privately urged the overthrow of the Persian Gulf monarchies as the first step toward a Mideast peace."
  13. ^ "George W. Ball Papers, 1880s-1994" (PDF). Princeton University Library. Archived from the original on 2007-06-24.
  14. ^ "Text Of Remarks By National Security Advisor Samuel R. Berger To The Bilderberg Steering Committee; "Strengthening The Bipartisan Center: An Internationalist Agenda For America"". Federal News Service. November 4, 1999.
  15. ^ a b c Are the people who 'really run the world' meeting this weekend?
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bilderbergers celebrate half a century of intrigue, secrecy. 20. The New American. June 28, 2004. ISSN 08856540. "Attendees from the U.S. this year reportedly included: Senators Jon Corzine (D-N.J.) and John Edwards (D-N.C.); Melinda Gates, wife of Microsoft founder Bill Gates; Donald Graham, chairman and CEO of the Washington Post Company; Richard N. Haass, president of the Council on Foreign Relations; Timothy Geithner, president of the Federal ReserveBank of New York; Douglas Feith, U.S. Undersecretary of Defense; Walter Isaacson, president and CEO of the Aspen Institute; Jessica T. Mathews, president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; Indra K. Nooyi, president and CEO of Pepsico; Peter Weinberg, CEO of Goldman Sachs International; and James Wolfensohn, president of the World Bank.".
  17. ^ a b c Bilderberger Conspiracy
  18. ^ a b Kenneth Maxwell (2004). "The Case of the Missing Letter in Foreign Affairs:: Kissinger, Pinochet and Operation Condor". David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies. Archived from the original on 2007-03-11.
  19. ^ "Herter, Christian Archibald, 1895-1966. Papers: Guide.". Houghton Library, Harvard.
  20. ^ Aubourg, Valerie (2003). "Organizing Atlanticism: the Bilderberg group and the Atlantic institute, 1952- 1963". Intelligence and National Security 18:2: 92–105.
  21. ^ a b Hatch, Alden (1962). H.R.H.Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands: An authorized biography. London: Harrap. ISBN B0000CLLN4.
  22. ^ a b c "Western Issues Aired". The Washington Post. April 24, 1978. "The three-day 26th Bilderberg Meeting concluded at a secluded cluster of shingled buildings in what was once a farmer's field. Zbigniew Brzezinski, President Carter's national security adviser, Swedish Prime Minister Thorbjorrn Falldin, former secretary of state Henry Kissinger and NATO Commander Alexander M. Haig Jr. were among 104 North American and European leaders at the conference."
  23. ^ "The Real Aims of the Bilderberg Club". BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. April 6, 1982.
  24. ^ Jasper, William F. (July 12, 2004). Rogues' gallery of EU founders: the emerging European superstate, now moving forward under the EU, is the result of a deliberate scheme put into motion many years ago by powerful planners and plotters. 20. The New American. p. 15. ISSN 08856540. "Attendees at the founding Bilderberg meeting (1954), for example, included: David Rockefeller, global banker and later chairman of the CFR; Dean Rusk, president of the Rockefeller Foundation and later U.S. Secretary of State; Joseph E. Johnson, president of the Carnegie Endowment; C.D. Jackson, head of Time, Inc.; Gen. Walter Bedell Smith, former head of the OSS, precursor to the CIA; and Lord Dennis Healey, Labor Party leftist and later British Chancellor of the Exchequer.".
  25. ^ a b c Bill Hayton (29 September 2005). "Inside the secretive Bilderberg Group". BBC.
  26. ^ a b "Clinton; Tony and Gordon just have to work this out; The former president, who is expected to play a starring role at the Labour conference, talks to Toby Harnden about the party; its future and its leadership contest". The Spectator. September 16, 2006. p. 14. "In fact, Clinton, then governor of Arkansas and considered a rank outsider for the 1992 presidential race, first met Brown in June 1991 at the Bilderberg conference in the Black Forest resort of Baden-Baden. By all accounts, the two clicked."
  27. ^ Mark Rich (2008). Hidden Evil. ISBN 9781435750104.
  28. ^ U.S. Sen. John Edwards at Bilderberg. (06-JUN-04) UPI NewsTrack
  29. ^ The Nation: Conspiracy Theorists Unite; A Secret Conference Thought to Rule the World
  30. ^ Jackie Kucinich (May 12, 2005). "World leaders attend meeting that they won't talk about". The Hill. p. 4. "Several members of Congress have been said to be on the guest list in the past, including Sens. Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-Texas), Chris Dodd (D-Conn.), Jon Corzine (D-N.J.), Chuck Hagel (R-Neb.) and Evan Bayh (D-Ind.). Sen. John Edwards (D-N.C) took a break from the campaign trail to attend the meeting last year. Hagel's office confirmed that he had attended the conference in 1999 and 2000."
  31. ^ Christy Hoppe (Thursday, May 31, 2007), Perry off to secret forum in Turkey, The Dallas Morning News, retrieved 2009-07-21
  32. ^ a b "Why is our governor visiting this group". The Augusta Chronicle. June 19, 2008. p. 8. "Some of the names on the list are intriguing. Some of the well-known names include:Ben Bernanke - chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System; Condoleezza Rice - U.S. secretary of state; James A. Johnson - tasked with choosing U.S. Sen. Barack Obama's running mate; Paul Wolfowitz - with the Institute for Public Policy Research. The one name that stands out in my opinion this year is South Carolina Gov. Mark Sanford."
  33. ^ Ian Aitken (May 26, 1989). The Guardian (London). "Mr Paddy Ashdown is not yet wholly at ease with the trappings of office, even if the office in question is only that of leader of the Social and Liberal Democrats. Attending the Bilderberg Conference of European political leaders in Spain last week, he was deeply impressed by the splendour of the official cars and the intensity of the security precautions laid on for his arrival. Reaching the conference headquarters at last, he sank into a chair and said to his neighbour: 'Hello, I'm Paddy Ashdown.' The neighbour smiled diffidently, put out his hand, and said: 'Hello, I'm the King of Spain.'"
  34. ^ Telegraph.co.uk Taxpayers foot bill for Ed Balls 'junket'. Daily Telegraph
  35. ^ a b c "Who pulls the strings?". The Guardian. 10 March 2001.
  36. ^ a b "Memorandum submitted by the Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards - Complaint against Mr Kenneth Clarke". United Kingdom Parliament. 11 July 1997. "Mr Clarke subsequently explained that he and Mr Blair considered that they were attending the conference as representatives of the Government and the Opposition respectively, and stated that 'I was quite confident that I was at the time meeting the rules applying to Ministers, and it did not occur to me that the new rules concerning registration could apply to this visit'."
  37. ^ House of Commons - Register of Members' Interests, Commons Publications, 2 December 1998, retrieved 2009-07-21
  38. ^ "Register of Members' Interests". 9 June 1999. "3-6 June 1999, to Portugal, to attend Bilderberg meetings. I paid for my own air fare; the hotel accommodation for three nights was paid for by the organisers."
  39. ^ "Register of Members' Interests". 21 May 2003. "15-18 May 2003, to Versailles, France, to attend a Bilderberg Conference. I paid for my own air fare; the hotel accommodation for three nights was paid for by the organisers."
  40. ^ "Register of Members' Interests". 8 June 2004. "3-6 June 2004, to Stresa, Italy, to attend Bilderberg Conference. I paid for my own air fare; the hotel accommodation for three nights was paid for by the organisers.",
  41. ^ House of Commons - Register of Members' Interests
  42. ^ Kenneth Clarke MP, Rushcliffe (TheyWorkForYou.com)
  43. ^ "Register of Members' Interests - Kenneth Clarke". United Kingdom Parliament. 16 June 2008.