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The Great American Novel Music Clip One


The Great American Novel Music Clip Two



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Yahoo News 05 July, 2011



The Great American Novel Music Clip Three

David Cameron and Milly Dowler

PM shocked by Dowler hacking claims

David Cameron has condemned the alleged hacking of murdered teenager Milly Dowler's phone. 'Truly dreadful'

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Soham murders PA

Soham parents contacted on phone hacking

News of the World phone hacking investigators have contacted the parents of the murdered Soham girls. 'Furore'

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The Great American Novel Music Clip Four

Kate Middleton

Kate gets her catwalk on Canada style

She's only five days into her tour of Canada, but Kate Middleton has already worked nine stunning outfits. Nautical

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Cleopatra

The longest Hollywood films ever made

If your bum gets numb after sitting in a cinema for 90 minutes, wait until you watch these marathons. 242 minutes

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Movies Blog

Hollywood actors' real ages


Fri Jul 01 04:17PM by Edward Bovingdon
Warning: This blog may turn your eyes green with envy
Hollywood actors seem to have it all - money, fame, notoriety, talent (sometimes in that order) and now they seem to have found a way to stop the wrinkle clock! Johnny Depp spent two long hours and twenty disappointing minutes trying to find the fountain of youth in the latest ‘Pirates Of The Caribbean’ film, but all he really needed to do was check out these youthful looking actors. Although they look young and flawless, we reveal the shocking real ages of Hollywood’s hottest stars…



The Great American Novel Music Clip Five A

American Union Made by Urban Distaster


Marilyn Monroe - Norma Jean Mortenson - Norma Jean Baker



Marilyn Monroe - Norma Jean Mortenson - Norma Jean Baker


One of the most iconic names in cinematic history is one just plucked from the air before her first audition. A bit disappointing, much like the Enigma… or ‘The Tourist’.

Michael Caine - Maurice Joseph Micklewhite

Probably one of the wisest name changes in the history of letters. Maurice Micklewhite sounds more like a killer in ‘The Hills Have Eyes’ rather than a talented actor. The name would have helped him get an endorsement deal with M&Ms though. Swings and roundabouts we guess.
Whoopi Goldberg - Caryn Elaine Johnson

If you could choose your name to any name in the world, who else would have landed with ‘Whoopi’? So ridiculous you thought that it couldn’t be made up. It can and it was. She now kind of sounds like an ice cream. Perfect for the current heat-wave.


The Great American Novel Music Clip Six B
American Union Made by Urban Distaster

Bruce Willis - Walter Bruce Willis

Walter? WALTER? His entire effortless cool and action hero swagger has been sabotaged by name terrorists. Get that white (and then immediately brown) tank top back on Bruce and save the day again!

Natalie Portman - Natalie Hershlag
Natalie probably spotted the iconic Sun-pun headlines coming a mile off on this one and took decisive and much needed action.

Michael Keaton - Michael John Douglas
Quite clearly a ploy to steer clear of a case of mistaken identity. He might have accidentally won an Oscar though.

Nicolas Cage - Nicolas Kim Coppola

With Nic Cage’s recent spell in a police cell, this change of name seems fairly ironic. Maybe it was all part of his master plan to distance himself from the Coppola family

Tom Cruise - 49

His most memorable role came as the young buck in ‘Top Gun’ armed with boyish good looks and an F-14 fighter plane. Since then his career has blossomed and, with popular consensus, so has his face. Hitting an astonishing 49-years-old this weekend, his devilish good looks have kept him a firm favourite with women of all ages, even though he is pushing 50. Although he does look a bit like a waxwork in this shot
Tom Cruise - Thomas Mapother IV

Gosh, doesn’t Tom Cruise’s real name sound a bit posh? Maybe he should have kept his birth name, then he would have been slated for that rather than his movies. 

Holly Hunter - 53

Academy Award-winner Holly Hunter looks remarkable for her age. In a recent photo shoot for Style Magazine she looks as if she could be her own daughter! Perhaps it’s the curious case of Holly Hunter? At the ripe old age of 53 she is the personification of a fine wine (getting better with age).

Jennifer Aniston - 42

Having flaunted her body in ‘Just Go With It’, Jennifer Aniston is set to show even more flesh in upcoming comedy ‘Horrible Bosses’ and we can certainly see why. Having recently picked up a Decade of Hotness award, it seems her youthful looks have stuck it out, even through some questionable ‘comedy’ flicks.
Jennifer Aniston - Jennifer Anastassakis

Not the wildest change of name, as it sounds as though it stemmed from a fairly lazy teacher who couldn’t be bothered to ask how to pronounce it. Either that or Jennifer couldn't pronounce it herself. They are the only possible explanations.

Keanu Reeves - 46

It’s been 22 years since Keanu Reeves stumbled onto our screens in ‘Bill & Ted's Excellent Adventure’, but the mono-toned actor doesn’t seem to have aged a day. So it comes as a little bit of a surprise that he is a staggering 46 years old! It would seem that the casting director and continuity producer on the upcoming ‘Bill & Ted’ flick will be pleased.
Salma Hayek - 44

Hayek stormed onto the big screen in ‘Desperado’ as a sexy young thing alongside Antonio Banderas in 1995. Over a decade and a half later she still has the same youthful face that made her a star. It’s almost as if she was cryogenically frozen for seven years until she popped up in ‘Frida’ in 2002. Judging by her fairly lackluster filmography over the years, perhaps she’s always popping in and out of that chamber?
Will Smith - 42

When he’s not upsetting New York locals with his massive trailer, Will Smith is the friendliest man in the Hollywood Hills. And it would seem that his kindness has provided him with good karma. Looking at this picture it appears as though he’s used a large chunk of the aforementioned karma on his face. That, and making his entire family into a media product.
Julia Roberts - 43

Julia Roberts is still as radiant as she was when she first stepped into those killer black boots in ‘Pretty Woman’ back in 1990. It’s a testament to her beauty regime – though we’re guessing the fact that she’s global ambassador for a well-known beauty company could also have something to do with it. She looks ‘pretty’ much the same.
Matthew McConaughey - 41

McConaughey still resembles his character, David Wooderson, from ‘Dazed and Confused’ way back in 1993. Although his famous line; “That’s what I love about high school chicks. I get older, but they stay the same age” may sound a tad wrong considering he’s now 41, looking at his youthful mug, it would appear he stays the same age too! Although his face does look a bit longer.
Courteney Cox - 47

Looking at Courteney Cox now, you would never guess that it has been 15 years since the first ‘Scream’ film. She joins ‘Friends’ co-star Jennifer Aniston on the surprisingly-older-than-they-look-list. Maybe there was an on-set secret during the show? Whatever the reason, it seems Matt Le Blanc wasn’t give
n
Halle Berry - 44

Apart from the god-awful ‘Catwoman’, Halle Berry has had a pretty much spotless career, much like her appearance. Now at a womanly 44-years-old, she maintains her sumptuous good looks and proves once and for all that she’s the cat that got the wrinkle cream. Meow!he heads
Julia Stiles - 30

Judging by her expression, Stiles was the perfect actor to star in the angst rom-com ’10 Things I Hate About You’ alongside the late Heath Ledger. After all these years it seems she is still that moody teenager - even at 30 years of age
While rummaging in the Yahoo! cupboard for a pair of purple flip flops and a promotional beach ball to take to the beach, we stumbled across a treasure chest of names that no one really recognised. 
After delving a little deeper we found that they are actually the real names of the hottest Hollywood stars. Here’s what we found:
 More on Yahoo! Movies
Follow us on Twitter 
Most complained about movie of 2010

Other surprising real names:
Danny DeVito - Daniel Michaeli
Kirk Douglas - Issur Danielovitch Demsky
Ben Kingsley - Krishna Banji
Judy Garland – Frances Gumm
Jamie Foxx - Eric Marlon Bishop
Bob Hope - Leslie Townes Hope
Jodie Foster – Elisabeth Foster
Meg Ryan - Margaret Mary Emily Anne Hyra
Charlie Sheen - Carlos Irwin Estevez
Christopher Walken - Ronald Walken
Gene Wilder - Jerome Silberman

What names were you most surprised by? Do you know of any other drastic celeb name changes? Let us know.

- More on Yahoo! Movies:

Epic star transformations
Top ten movie stars on Facebook

Somerset shed SKY

Ramshackle hut voted 'Shed of the Year'

A hut first used for a cheese and cider society is now attracting global record labels hunting for new talent. Why?

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Harry Potter fans

Potter fans forced to sleep on the streets

Harry Potter fans camping out days before the world premiere have been left out in the rain. 'No tents allowed'

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Tevez

Tevez asks to leave Manchester City

Argentina star Carlos Tevez has announced his intention to leave Manchester City this summer. Why?

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Captain America

Three countries rename Captain America

Three states have opted to amend the title of new movie 'Captain America: The First Avenger'. Offer from studio

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Lydia Bright

Lydia Bright chats about her new figure

The 'Essex' star gossips to us about her hot new look, being single and those Mark and Lauren rumours. Have a nosy

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Cleopatra

The longest Hollywood films ever made

If your bum gets numb after sitting in a cinema for 90 minutes, wait until you watch these marathons. 242 minutes

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Houses of Parliament (Reuters)

TODAY - 05 July, 2011

MPs slam England 2018 World Cup bid

A report by MPs has blasted England's World Cup bid, and lashed out at Fifa for the corruption allegations. 'Appalled'

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Jiaozhou Bay Bridge

In pictures: World's longest sea bridge

Opened in Qingdao, the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge stretches 26 miles and could span the English Channel. Gallery

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Ian Dunt and Ronald Reagan statue

Reagan statue 'humiliating and misguided'

Our expert explains why he doesn't agree with the unveiling of the Ronald Reagan statue in London. More

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Kate Middleton

Kate gets her catwalk on Canada style

She's only five days into her tour of Canada, but Kate Middleton has already worked nine stunning outfits. Nautical

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Kai Fifield

Seven-year-old Brit gets Barcelona trial

Young Kai Fifield had the holiday of a lifetime when his kickabout was spotted by Barcelona scouts. See him in action

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World Cup ref blunder (Reuters)

Shocking ref blunder at World Cup

A truly unbelievable error by a referee at the Women's World Cup tops our list of officials' mistakes. Video and top 10

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Woman bath

The world's most expensive hotel rooms

We take a look at some of the world’s most expensive and luxurious hotel rooms. Personal butler included

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Squirrel runs under car

Squirrel cheats death by dodging car

Footage of a brave squirrel narrowly dodging a speeding Lamborghini has become a web sensation. Watch now

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Dermot O’Leary

Dermot's new TV show a flop

ITV suffered poor ratings last Saturday night, with Dermot O’Leary’s new show failing to attract viewers. Other flops

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Molly King

'I get on with David like a best friend'

Saturdays star Mollie King reveals how her model boyfriend David Gandy had to win over her mum. More from omg!

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Owen Hargreaves (Reuters)

Injury-prone star sets up fitness channel

Former Man Utd star Owen Hargreaves, who's been out for 34 months, has launched a fitness channel. More

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Glasses

Scientists unveil new 'bionic eyes'

Top scientists have unveiled new state of the art 'bionic eyes' at the London science fair. Amazing invention

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Soham murders PA

Soham parents contacted on phone hacking

News of the World phone hacking investigators have contacted the parents of the murdered Soham girls. 'Furore'

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Central midfield

Vote for the Premier League's greatest XI

Central midfielders come under the microscope as we continue our search for the top flight's elite. Shortlist

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Deckchairs - holidays without jabs

Holiday hotspots that don’t need jabs

There are lots of great places you can visit this summer that don’t require you to get any jabs. Stunning beaches

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The Apprentice cast

'Twist planned' for Apprentice final

Fans of 'The Apprentice' are reportedly in for a few surprises when this year's final airs. Show favourite to return

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Peter Ridsdale (PA)

Plymouth Argyle FC to be sold for £1

Leeds United's controversial former chairman Peter Ridsdale is to buy Plymouth Argyle for £1. 'Reluctant'

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Dominique Strauss-Kahn

DSK accuser sues New York Post

The hotel maid accusing Strauss-Kahn of assault has sued the paper for reporting she was a prostitute. More

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Barclays Bank

Barclays 'the Ryanair of British banking'

Focusing on nothing more than the bottom line means banks are causing huge problems. 'Ethic-free operations'

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Sandwich

The sandwich with a 14-day shelf life

Many shops boast about the freshness of their sandwiches, so would you want to buy a two-week-old one? Low cost

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Range Rover Evoque

'Baby' Range Rover’s sold out already

The Range Rover Evoque is the most hotly anticipated car of the car, but you can’t buy it for a year. 'Waiting list'

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Gothenburg

Peru to sue Swedish city over thefts

Peru is set to sue the city of Gothenburg over the theft of textiles dating back to around 100 BC. 'Civilisation pillaged'

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Australian woman wearing burka / AFP

Australia cops to get burqa removal powers

New powers will mean cops in one state can demand the removal of burqas and other veils to identify people. More

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Tiger Woods

Tiger Woods ruled out of The Open

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Picture: John_Fitzgerald_Kennedy_Library

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 - November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the thirty-fifth President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.

Picture: picture-alliance / dpa

Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 - January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the thirty-sixth President of the United States (1963-1969) and thirty-seventh Vice President of the United States (1961-1963)

Picture: White_House_via_CNP

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 - April 22, 1994) was the thirty-seventh President of the United States (1969-1974), and the only president to ever resign from office. He was also the thirty-sixth Vice President of the United States (1953-1961).

Picture: EPA_FILES

Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King, Jr. July 14, 1913 - December 26, 2006) was the thirty-eighth President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977, and the fortieth Vice President of the United States serving from 1973 to 1974.

Picture: picture-alliance / dpa

James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) served as the thirty-ninth President of the United States from 1977 to 1981, and was the recipient of the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize. Prior to becoming president, Carter served two terms in the Georgia Senate and as the 76th Governor of Georgia, from 1971 to 1975

Picture: DPA

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 - June 5, 2004) was the fortieth President of the United States (1981-1989) and the thirty-third Governor of California (1967-1975). Born in Illinois, Reagan moved to Los Angeles, California in the 1930s, where he was an actor, president of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG), and a spokesman for General Electric (GE).

Picture: Wikipedia/Public Domain

George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) served as the forty-first President of the United States from 1989 to 1993. Bush held a multitude of political positions prior to his presidency, including Vice President of the United States in the administration of Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) and director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

Picture: Wikipedia/Public Domain

William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton served as the forty-second President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. He was the fifteenth Democrat elected to that office. He was the third-youngest president, only older than Theodore Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy when he went into office.

Picture: Wikipedia/Public Domain

George Walker Bush, born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third President of the United States. He served as the forty-sixth Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000 before being sworn in as President on January 20, 2001. His term ends at noon (ET) on January 20, 2009.

Picture: Wikipedia/Public Domain

Barack Hussein Obama II, born August 4, 1961 is the President-elect of the United States of America and the junior United States Senator from Illinois. Obama is the first black to be elected President of the United States.
He is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the first black to serve as president of the Harvard Law Review.





 Bilderberg Group Investigations http://www.truefacts.co.uk/articles/a0002.html

by Paul Vigay (25th Mar 2000)

Paul Vigay looks into the shady world of global conspiracies and manipulations.
His findings are at least eye-opening, at worst downright frightening. Have you ever wondered if there really is a 'global elite'? Some secret group of people who control world events and hide their agenda from public knowledge?

Could there be a group of people; politicians, heads of multinational companies, directors of world banking organisations and even royalty, who decide what policies will determine the way ordinary people live - and die?

As David Icke says, it is relatively easy for a small group of people to control the masses when everyday we give our power and freedom away, fearing to step out from the comfort of our 'hassle free zone'. Who perpetrate the 'Problem, Reaction, Solution' events which shape and manipulate our perceived 'democracy and freedom'?

If you control governments and the media you control the world, or do you? What if a problem so terrible, so grotesque, so 'unbelievable' begins to occur with startling regularity? Do you demand answers? Do you demand what 'the government' is going to do about it? Do you pass the problem to someone else do deal with? What happens if that person you hand the solution to, is the person who created the problem in the first place? So forms the basis for the problem, reaction, solution method of controlling the people with the minimum of effort.

Imagine a scenario where a lone-gunman walks into a crowded shopping centre and guns down a number of innocent people. Terrible enough, but what if at a later time, some innocent school children in a quiet, peaceful school are the targets? The more outrageous and disgusting an event, the more people will demand something must be done; "Guns must be banned", "Something must be done now!".

Believe it or not, David Icke predicted just such a scenario in his 1994 book "The Robots' Rebellion", before we witnessed the terrible events at Dunblane.

Supposing someone, somewhere wanted the end 'solution' to be "to ban guns". Obviously, gun clubs, enthusiasts and legitimate people are going to complain, perhaps with the backing or at least, indifference, of the general public. After all "it doesn't affect us does it". You need to somehow manipulate the public to demand that you offer the solution. You need a public 'reaction', for which you need to stage a perceived 'problem'. The more horrific and unbelievable you can make it, the more the public will demand what you wanted to do in the first place.

Rising Crime? or Big Brother?

What if you want to install video cameras and monitoring equipment into towns and villages. Of course, this costs huge amounts of money, which could be spent on hospitals, research into illnesses or saving the environment, so you need the public to demand you do it, or at the minimum, not offer resistance when you propose it. You need the 'problem' of rising crime, which needs to be perpetuated throughout the media and on TV. People will then fear being mugged in the streets and approve the 'safety' offered by cameras and surveillance equipment - even though the need was not high enough in the first place.

Does such a group of people exist? There is ample evidence to say that there does, and what's more, once you become aware of the facts, you can see their influence in world events - even though seemingly forged by 'opposing factions'.

Democracy or Denial?

Why are the public losing interest in government and their right to vote? Is it because people think "it doesn't matter who you vote for, they both end up doing the same old things". How precise this turns out to be, once you dig deep enough.

No wonder The Sun newspaper decided to back Tony Blair of New Labour (what a joke) in the May 1997 UK general election. The chief executive of News International (the parent of The Sun) is Mr Andrew Knight, a member of the Bilderberg Group.

Opposite sides, same views:-
Opposames!

Mr Tony Blair was a guest of the annual Bilderberg meeting in 1993, together with his colleague Kenneth Clarke. Hang on a minute though..... Aren't those two on opposite sides? What about Bilderberg attendees Margaret Thatcher and Denis Healey - and you thought we lived in a democracy where your vote actually counted.

Incidentally, this could account for why Margaret Thatcher was one of Tony Blair's first guests at Number Ten, something the independent media were quick to pick up on after New Labour won power.

The same goes for US presidents. Every one since Jimmy Carter has been a Bilderberg representative. Democrat, Republican - it doesn't matter. They all have the same policies, decided upon at top secret meetings held annually in hidden locations.

What exactly are 'The Bilderbergers' then? What are their aims? This article, mainly extracts from "The Bilderberg Group... the Trilateral Commission... covert power groups of the West", by Robert Eringer, (Pentacle Books, 1980) tries to expose some of their secret agenda.

As the concepts and plans behind the global elite could pose such a threat to our freedom, I will periodically return to this subject in order to keep Enigma readers aware of the world around them. If anything in this article, or any keywords on the cover of this issue, strike a chord with you, or if you have further information, please do not hesitate to contact me at the editorial address.

The Global Manipulators: In Search of Answers
It is indeed intriguing when a prestigious collection of internationally powerful men lock themselves away for a weekend in some remote town far away from the Press to talk about world problems.
Since the late 1950s, the Bilderberg Group has been the subject of a variety of conspiracy theories. For the most part, conspiracy theories emanate from political extremist organisations, Right and Left. The 'Radical Right' view Bilderberg as an integral part of the 'international Zionist-communist conspiracy'.
At the other end of the political spectrum, the radical Left perceive Bilderberg to be a branch of the 'Rockefeller-Rothschild grand design to rule the world'. For many it is less frightening to believe in hostile conspirators than it is to face the fact that no one is in control. And after all, isn't conspiracy the normal continuation of normal politics by normal means?
Conspiracy or not, the Bilderberg Group is a fascinating example of behind-the-scenes 'invisible' influence-peddling in action.
Bilderbergers represent the elite and wealthy establishment of every Western nation. They include bankers, industrialists, politicians and leaders of giant multinational corporations. Their annual meetings, which take place at a different location each year, go unannounced, their debates unreported, their decisions unknown.
The group certainly fits C.Wright Mills's definition of a Power Elite: 'A group of men, similar in interest and outlook, shaping events from invulnerable positions behind the scenes.'
The New World Order
I began my investigation of Bilderberg while in Washington, D.C. in the autumn of 1975. I had read bits and pieces on Bilderberg in right-wing literature and so I went directly to its source, the Liberty Lobby, an ultra-conservative political pressure group located a stone's throw from Capitol Hill. There I interviewed one E.Stanley Rittenhouse, Liberty Lobby's legislative aide. Rittenhouse solemnly explained the existence of a Jewish-communist conspiracy to rule the world by way of a 'New World Order', whose eventual goal is one world government. To prove this point Rittenhouse incessantly recited passages from his handy pocket Bible and explained the evolution of this great conspiracy.
The Illuminati
It all goes back to the Illuminati, a secret society/fraternity formed in Bavaria in 1776 by Adam Weishaupt, based on the philosophical ideals of Plato. John Ruskin, 'a secret disciple of the Illuminati' and a professor of art and philosophy at Oxford University in the 1870s, revived these ideals in his teachings.
A Privileged Ruling Class
The late Dr. Carroll Quigley, a distinguished professor at Georgetown University for many years, wrote in "Tragedy and Hope" that 'Ruskin spoke to the Oxford undergraduates as members of the privileged ruling class ... that they were possessors of a magnificent tradition of education, beauty, rule of law, freedom, decency, and self-discipline but that this tradition could not be saved, and indeed did not deserve to be saved, unless it could be extended to the lower classes in England and to the non-English masses throughout the world'.
Diamond Mining
Cecil Rhodes, a student and devoted fan of Ruskin, 'Feverishly exploited the diamond and gold fields of South Africa. With financial support from Lord Rothschild he was able to monopolise the diamond mines of South Africa as De Beers Consolidated Mines.
'In the middle of the 1890s Rhodes had a personal income of a least a million pounds a year which he spent so freely for his mysterious purposes that he was usually overdrawn on his account. These purposes centred on his desire to federate the English-speaking peoples and to bring all habitable portions of the world under their control.'
The founding of The Round Table
To this end, Rhodes, along with other disciples of Ruskin, formed a secret society in association with a group of Cambridge men who shared the same ideals. This society, which was later to become the original Round Table Group (better known in the 1920s as the 'Cliveden Set') was formed on February 5th 1881.
According to Dr. Quigley, "This group was able to get access to Rhodes's money after his death in 1902. Under the trusteeship of Alfred (later Lord) Milner, They sought to extend and execute the ideals that Rhodes had obtained from Ruskin."
"As governor-general of South Africa in the period 1897-1905, Milner recruited a group of young men, chiefly from Oxford and from Toynbee Hall, to assist him in organising his administration. Through this influence these men were able to win influential posts in government and international finance and became the dominant influence in British imperial and foreign affairs up to 1939. Under Milner in South Africa, they were known as Milner's Kindergarten until 1910. In 1909-1903 they organised semi-secret groups, known as Round Table Groups, in the chief British dependencies and in the United States."
The CFR and RIIA
It was at the Majestic Hotel in Paris in 1919 that the Round Table Groups of the United States and Britain emerged out from under a cloak of secrecy and officially became the (American) Council on Foreign Relations and the (British) Royal Institute for International Affairs.
To Mr Rittenhouse and his breed of religious isolationists at Liberty Lobby, Bilderberg evolved directly from the 'satanic-communist' Illuminati, and the Council on Foreign Relations - Royal Institute of International Affairs relationship.
I phoned Dr. Quigley at his office in Georgetown University's elite School of Foreign Service. A man of impeccable credentials, Quigley used "Tragedy and Hope" as a text for his courses on Western Civilisation.
Published in 1966, "Tragedy and Hope" has become a rare book to locate. Quigley apparently had trouble with his publisher over the book's distribution. The publisher claimed demand was poor. When Quigley sought and acquired the necessary demand, the publisher responded by saying that the plates had been destroyed.
In his book, 1310 pages in all, Quigley detailed how the intricate financial and commercial patterns of the West prior to 1914 influenced the development of today's world. It has been suggested that these revelations, especially in coming from a respected historian, did not amuse the higher echelons of big banking; hence a form of censorship resulted.
It is for this reason that "Tragedy and Hope", much to Quigley's annoyance, has become the Bible of conspiracy theorists and may be found for sale only through mail order book clubs which specialise in conspiracy literature.
Quigley, in his best Boston accent, dismissed the Radical-Right inter-pretation as 'garbage'. But he was quick to add, "To be perfectly blunt, you could find yourself in trouble dealing with this subject." He explained that his career as a lecturer in the government institution circuit was all but ruined because of the twenty or so pages he had written about the existence of Round Table Groups. I recently studied the late Dr. Quigley's private files on the Round Table Groups at the Georgetown University library. There I discovered great substance to his findings in the form of personal correspondence and notes of interviews and conversations.
Exhausted with right-wing cries of communist conspiracy, I wrote to the embassies in Washington of each one of the countries whose citizens are involved with Bilderberg. I received only three replies. A letter from the Royal Swedish Embassy states: 'Prominent Swedish businessmen in their private capacities are and have been members of the group. Swedish politicians have also - mostly as invited guests as I understand it - participated in meetings with the group. I may add that I am not aware of any official Swedish view on the Bilderberg Group.' The Canadian Embassy wrote: 'To our knowledge, the Canadian Government has no position with regard to this group.'
Official Denials
I telephoned all of the embassies. Out of twenty, the only one which had any information of Bilderberg was that of the Netherlands. The official I spoke with knew very little about the group but he speculated that its purpose was to make this 'a more liveable world'. A diplomat at the Embassy of West Germany exclaimed, 'Bilder What?', and he refuse to believe the existence of such a group. This was a familiar response, even from many university professors of politics whom I questioned.
Mark Felt, the former Assistant Director of the FBI, had never heard of Bilderberg. Neither had Michael Moffitt of the Institute for Policy Studies and co-author of Global Reach.
After spotting his Name on a poster advertising a seminar on the power elite, I phoned Dr. Peter David Beter, a former Counsel to the Import-Export Bank. Beter contends that Bilderberg Conferences are nothing more than social occasions where prostitutes and large amounts of alcohol are enjoyed. But these days, Dr. Beter's full-time profession consists of peddling a monthly 'Audio Letter' to a very gullible public. Beter was last heard by this author proclaiming that the Russians have secretly implanted nuclear missiles in the Mississippi River.
White House Enquiries
I wrote to President Gerald Ford at the White House to enquire about Bilderberg when I heard of his one-time involvement. His 'Director of Correspondence' replied and stated: 'The Conference does not intend that its program be secret, although in the interest of a free and open discussion, no records are kept of the meetings.' (I later learned that records are indeed kept of the meetings, although they are marked 'Strictly Confidential'.)
I wrote to David Rockefeller, Chairman of the Chase Manhattan Bank, to enquire about Bilderberg. An assistant wrote back and he suggested I write to 'Mr. Charles Muller, a Vice President at Muden and Company, the organisation which assists with the administration of American Friend of Bilderberg, Incorporated'
I wrote to Mr. Muller and was sent the following printed message: "In the early 1950s a number of people in both sides of the Atlantic sought a means of bringing together leading citizens both in and out of government, for informal discussions of problems facing the Western world. Such meetings, they felt, would create a better understanding of the forces and trends affecting Western nations."
The first meeting that brought Americans and Europeans together took place under the chairmanship of H.R.H. Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands at the Bilderberg Hotel in Oosterbeck, Holland, from 29th May to 31st May, 1954. Ever since, the meetings have been called Bilderberg Meetings.

The first Bilderberg Meeting, in Oosterbeck, Holland, May 1954
Each year since its inception, Prince Bernhard has been the Bilderberg chairman. There are no members' of Bilderberg. Each year an invitation list is compiled by Prince Bernhard in consultation with an informal international steering committee; individuals are chosen in the light of their knowledge and standing. To ensure full discussion an attempt is made to include participants representing many political and economic points of view. Of the 80 to 100 participant, approximately one-third are from government and politics, the other are from many fields - finance, industry, labour, education and journalism. They attend in a personal and not in an official capacity. from the beginning participants have come from North America and Western Europe, and from various international organisations. The official languages are English and French. 'The meetings take place in a different county each year. Since 1957, they have been held in many Western European countries and in North America as well. The discussion at each meeting is centred upon topics of current concern in the broad fields of foreign policy, world economy, and other contemporary issues. Basic groundwork for the symposium is laid by means of working papers and general discussion follows. In order to assure freedom of speech and opinion, the gatherings are closed and off the record. No resolutions are proposed, no votes taken, and no policy statements issued during or after the meetings. In short, Bilderberg is a high-ranking and flexibly international forum in which opposing viewpoints can be brought closer together and mutual understanding furthered.' I wrote to Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and received a reply from the Bureau of European Affairs at the State Department: 'In the early 1950s a number of people on both sides of the Atlantic sought a means of bringing together leading citizens ' And so on.
Official Business or Not?
I went to see Charles Muller at his Murden and Company office in New York City. He appeared to know little about Bilderberg and merely repeated information available on the printed message. It is claimed that "Government officials attend in a personal and not an official capacity". Mr. Muller was surprised to learn from me that the State Department acknowledged in a letter to Liberty Lobby that department officials Helmut Sonnenfeldt and Winston Lord attended a Bilderberg Conference at government expense in their official capacities. (as did Kenneth Clarke and Tony Blair in 1993) I tried to obtain interviews with both Sonnenfeldt and Lord. Their secretaries channelled me through to many different offices. Finally, Francis Seidner, a public affairs advisor, advised me to mind my own business. Back in London and armed with a list of Bilderberg participants (available on request - Ed.), I sought out and conducted an interview with Lord Roll, chairman of the S.G. Warburg Bank. Roll gave little away and he stated outright that records of Bilderberg Conferences do not exist. (Little did he realise that I had one in my briefcase?) I wrote to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and they replied: 'Thank you for your letter enquiring about the Bilderberg Group. Unfortunately, we can find no trace of the Bilderberg Group in any of our reference works on international organisations.' (Much later, I learned that the Foreign Office has on occasion paid the way for British members to attend Bilderberg Conferences.) A letter to one-time member Sir Paul Chambers brought this response: 'I am under obligation not to disclose anything about the Bilderberg Group to anybody who is not a member of that Group, I am very sorry that I cannot help, but I am clearly powerless to do so and it would be wrong in the circumstances to say anything to you about Bilderberg.' Sir Paul suggested I write to the Bilderberg secretariat at an address in the Hague. I did so and was again sent a copy of the standard printed message. I had eagerly looked forward to the next Bilderberg Conference, which in 1976 was to be held in Hot Springs, Virginia. For the first time since 1954, the meeting was cancelled. The international steering committee felt it inappropriate to conduct a conference that year because permanent chairman Prince Bernhard was under such heavy public scrutiny after having been publicly disgraced for taking a bribe from the Lockheed Aircraft Company.
UK Meeting in 1977
So my first Bilderberg Conference took place a year later, in April 1977, at the serene Devon resort of Torquay. It is the Bilderberg custom to book a whole hotel for the weekend conference. The five-star Imperial Hotel was no exception and it, too, was emptied to accommodate over 100 Bilderberg participants. Even the Imperials permanent guests were told to find lodging elsewhere for the weekend. I managed a booking at the Imperial for three nights before the Bilderbergers moved in. On Thursday, two days before the conference was due to begin, heavy lorries and workmen unloaded large wooden file cabinets and sealed crates. I was not allowed access to the conference hall, despite assurances from a Bilderberg secretary that 'We have nothing to hide'. At 2 am Friday morning with the night club finally closed and the Imperial asleep, I tiptoed down five flights of stairs from my room to the conference hall. To my surprise, the doors were unlocked and unguarded. I slipped into the darkened hall and inspected the locked file cabinets, glass translation booth and electronic equipment for tape-recording and translation. Having already consumed a half-dozen whiskies, I could not repulse an urge to purloin a mahogany and brass-plated Bilderberg gavel. It now sits atop my desk, a trophy of my research. Like all others, I was thrown out of the hotel on the Friday to make way for American Secret Servicemen and Special Branch bodyguards. The Bilderbergers arrived later, mostly by way of a quiet entry through Exeter Airport 10 miles form Torquay. They held their hush-hush meetings and then, just as quietly, disappeared back to their respective banks, multinational corporations and government jobs, perhaps a little more the wiser than when they arrived.

As you can see from the article above, people 'in the know' seem intent on keeping the purpose and attendees to each Bilderberg meeting top secret. The meetings still continue annually with the 1998 meeting having occurred only a few weeks ago at the remote Turnberry Hotel in Ayreshire, Scotland. Not long afterwards, I managed to obtain a list of attendees to this, most recent, meeting. The full list appears on the following page, for the benefit of, and to aid the personal research of, Enigmareaders. One noticeable omission from the list, is British Prime Minister Mr Tony Blair. Does this mean that he is on the way out? It's interesting to note that William Hague (leader of the Opposition) and Tony Blair's own Secretary of State for Defence, Mr George Robertson were both present, as were (as usual) international media moguls.

Other resources on this site
  • Linking the people.... - Our ongoing project to connect the dots and cross-reference all the attendees of Bilderberg meetings.
  • 1999 attendees - A list of attendees at the Bilderberg meeting 1999.
Other sites you may be interested in visiting
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Freemasons





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So you want to become the President of the United States of America?

Opposite sides, same views:- Opposames! 
see http://www.truefacts.co.uk/articles/a0002.html By Paul Vigay 25th March, 2000

Mr Tony Blair the Ex-Prime Minister Britain was a guest of the annual Bilderberg meeting in 1993, together with his colleague Kenneth Clarke. Hang on a minute though..... Aren't those two on opposite sides? 

What about Bilderberg attendees Margaret Thatcher and Denis Healey - 

and you thought we lived in a democracy where your vote actually counted.

Paul Vigay looks into the shady world of global conspiracies and manipulations.
His findings are at least eye-opening, at worst downright frightening. Have you ever wondered if there really is a 'global elite'? Some secret group of people who control world events and hide their agenda from public knowledge?

Could there be a group of people; politicians, heads of multinational companies, directors of world banking organisations and even royalty, who decide what policies will determine the way ordinary people live - and die?

As David Icke says, it is relatively easy for a small group of people to control the masses when everyday we give our power and freedom away, fearing to step out from the comfort of our 'hassle free zone'. Who perpetrate the 'Problem, Reaction, Solution' events which shape and manipulate our perceived 'democracy and freedom'? If you control governments and the media you control the world, or do you? What if a problem so terrible, so grotesque, so 'unbelievable' begins to occur with startling regularity? Do you demand answers? Do you demand what 'the government' is going to do about it? Do you pass the problem to someone else do deal with? What happens if that person you hand the solution to, is the person who created the problem in the first place? So forms the basis for the problem, reaction, solution method of controlling the people with the minimum of effort. Imagine a scenario where a lone-gunman walks into a crowded shopping centre and guns down a number of innocent people. Terrible enough, but what if at a later time, some innocent school children in a quiet, peaceful school are the targets? The more outrageous and disgusting an event, the more people will demand something must be done; "Guns must be banned", "Something must be done now!". 

Believe it or not, David Icke predicted just such a scenario in his 1994 book "The Robots' Rebellion", before we witnessed the terrible events at Dunblane. 

Supposing someone, somewhere wanted the end 'solution' to be "to ban guns". Obviously, gun clubs, enthusiasts and legitimate people are going to complain, perhaps with the backing or at least, indifference, of the general public. After all "it doesn't affect us does it". You need to somehow manipulate the public to demand that you offer the solution. You need a public 'reaction', for which you need to stage a perceived 'problem'. The more horrific and unbelievable you can make it, the more the public will demand what you wanted to do in the first place.

Incidentally, this could account for why Margaret Thatcher was one of Tony Blair's first guests at Number Ten, something the independent media were quick to pick up on after New Labour won power. The same goes for US presidents. Every one since Jimmy Carter has been a Bilderberg representative. Democrat, Republican - it doesn't matter. They all have the same policies, decided upon at top secret meetings held annually in hidden locations.

What exactly are 'The Bilderbergers' then? What are their aims?

This article, mainly extracts from "The Bilderberg Group... the Trilateral Commission... covert power groups of the West", by Robert Eringer, (Pentacle Books, 1980) tries to expose some of their secret agenda. As the concepts and plans behind the global elite could pose such a threat to our freedom, I will periodically return to this subject in order to keep Enigma readers aware of the world around them. If anything in this article, or any keywords on the cover of this issue, strike a chord with you, or if you have further information, please do not hesitate to contact me at the editorial address.


Well if you are thinking of becoming the president of the USA well you should consider becoming a Freemans as most of the USA Presidents have been Freemasons and/or have strong Freemanon and/ot other Fremaosn associated secret societies like Yales famous Skull and Bones Society, The Council On Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commision or the Bilderberg Group.
Also if you are thinking about becomeing the President of the USA and want to live out  your whole term of  office and/or make sure your reputation stays in tact, so you are not forced to resign form some scandal.Then again it pays ot be a member  of the Freemason and/or one of thir other associated secret societies like like Yales famous Skull and Bones Society, The Council On Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commision or the Biilderberg Group. other presidents of the USA like the Kennedy family and Ronald Regan and Richard Nixon tried tp buck the system and go it alone, without joining Freemason and/or one of thir other associated secret societies  like Yales famous Skull and Bones Society, The Council On Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commision or the Bilderberg Group. Look what happened to them. President John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was shot during a motorcade drive through downtown Dallas, so that gave Freemason Vice President Lyndon Johnson automatic right to be the President of the Uniited States of America. Ronald Reagan - shot and wounded by John W. Hinkley, Jr. If tge bullet had been a little to the left Ronald Regan would have doed and well known Freemason Vice President George Herbert Walker Bush would have automaticlly become the president of the USA a lot earlier than he did.  In fact Ronald Regan had stated publiclt that during the early days o fhis presidential election campagn that he definately would not have George Herbert Walker Bush in his team as Vice President and if elected President of the USA, he would have all secret societies investigated. Yet, for some reason he has not said publicly, he suddenly cxhanged his mind and announced that he was making George Busg his running mate as the Vice President of he won the USA Presential Elections. and certainly did not speak again about investigating any sectret societies. Richard Nixon was forced to resign as a result of the famous Watergate Scandal. In the face of likely impeachment for his role in theWatergate scandal,[1] Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974. He was later pardoned by his successor, Gerald Ford, for any federal crimes he may have committed while in office. Gerald Ford is was also a well known Fremason. So the Watergate Scandal was fairly convenient for helping Gerald Ford in the position of the President of the USA.
  • Abraham Lincoln - assassinated by John Wilkes Booth
  • James Garfield - assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau
  • William McKinley - assassinated by Leon F. Czolgosz
  • John Kennedy - assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald

Presidents who suffered attempted assassinations

  • Andrew Jackson - would-be assassin: Richard Lawrence (both derringers misfired)
  • Harry Truman - Oscar Collazo and Griselio Torresola attempted to storm Blair House, residence of Truman
  • Gerald Ford - would be assassins: Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme and Sara Jane Moore, in two separate incidences
  • Ronald Reagan - shot and wounded by John W. Hinkley, Jr
The history evidence is fairly clear, if you are keen about trying ot become the President of the United States of Ameerica, all these problems can be solved by joining uo with either
the Freemason and/or one of thir other associated secret societies  like Yales famous Skull and Bones Society, The Council On Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commision or the Bilderberg Group. By doing so yo will make a lot of loyal friends, become rich and powerful, and even if you do not make it to the top of the food chain as the President of the USA, you are sure ot end up with a great well paid job as a public servant working as an assistant to one of the other Freemason Presidents of the USA. 

If you do join the Freemasons, and become the President of the USA, you mae have a great momument built with your name on it,  like the one build below to honout the First Freemason President of The USA George Washington. the name goerge seems ot be very popular when it comes to Freemason USA President..The have in fact been two George Bush Presidents. James is also a popular name to name you son,if you think yoy would like to groom him up for a shot to become the President of the United Stated of America.

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GEORGE WASHINGTON MASONIC NATIONAL MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION Centennial Celebration
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On February 22, 1910, George Washington’s 178th birthday, Masonic leaders from across the nation exterior551.jpgmet in Alexandria, Virginia and formed an association for the purpose of building a great memorial to honor America’s foremost Freemason. February 22, 2010, the 100th Anniversary of the founding of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association, will be a day of great festivities.

In honor of the occasion, the Conference of Grand Masters of North America, hosted by the Grand Lodge of Virginia, will be held in nearby Arlington. Delegates will attend the Association’s Annual Meeting and celebrate the 100th Anniversary and Washington’s 278th birthday at the Memorial.

At the Annual Meeting, a new portrait of George Washington as a Freemason will be unveiled. Painted by local artist, Christopher Erney, the portrait will be a new interpretation of Washington. Prints of the portrait will be available at the meeting. Complementing the portrait is a new video. It presents George Washington as the inspiration for the founding of America and explores the founding of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association. Underwritten by the Masonic Charity Foundation of Oklahoma, it will be available on DVD and as a download from the Memorial’s website for Masonic education.

The Memorial's new logo to commemorate the occasion was also designed by local artist Christopher Erney.  The logo combines the Washington Family Crest with numerous Masonic symbols. Its Square and Compasses is taken from the Memorial’s 1923 cornerstone affirms the Association's motto "In Memoriam Perpetuam" as it supports Freemasonry in a new century of service.

Following the Annual Meeting, the International Order of DeMolay will rededicate the colossal bronze statue of George Washington in Memorial Hall and reaffirm the role of DeMolay young men in Freemasonry. The statue was a gift to the Memorial from the DeMolay and 2010 marks the 60th Anniversary of its unveiling by President and Past Grand Master Harry S. Truman.

On display during the celebration will be the Trowel and Gavel used at the 1793 Cornerstone Laying of the United States Capitol by George Washington and the 1752 Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4 Bible upon which a young Washington took upon himself his Masonic obligations. 

The new White House Stones Exhibit will be inaugurated at the celebration. Each stone in the exhibit is marked by one of the Scots Masons who helped build the White House in the 1790s. The stones were discovered during the restoration of the White House by President Harry S. Truman in 1948. President Truman had the stones labeled and one was sent to each U.S. Grand Lodge and other Masonic organizations. The Exhibit reassembles nearly 50 stones. The Exhibit also includes minute books from Lodge No. 8 of Edinburgh recording the stonemasons’ marks and noting those who have “gone to America.” A matching Minute Book of Federal Lodge No. 1 will show those Scots masons forming the first lodge in 1793 on White House grounds. The exhibit is supported by the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, Valley of Washington, Orient of the District of Columbia, and by the Grand Lodge, F.A.A.M., of the District of Columbia. A gala reception will be held in Grand Masonic Hall and while the Annual Meeting is being held the ladies will enjoy an entertaining program in the North Lodge Room. A Centennial Celebration souvenir booklet containing a brief history of the Association including historic and current photographs will be distributed and several commemorative gift items will also be available and on display.
2010 is a unique celebration year for the Memorial Association. Together we are celebrating 100 years of dedication to Freemasonry’s greatest brother and honoring the countless brothers who built and sustain the Memorial. Equally important, 2010 marks a pledge of rededicated service, trusting in God that the century ahead will be filled with success and achievement. The Association shines as a bright light of Masonry as it fulfills its mission: “To inspire humanity through education to emulate and promote the virtues, character and vision of George Washington, the Man, the Mason and Father of our Country.”

To learn more, please visit the Memorial’s website:  www.gwmemorial.org


What is Freemasonry?

Freemasonry is the oldest fraternal organization in the world. It is dedicated to promoting improvement in the character of its members. A Mason is taught to be a good citizen. To be of good character. To care for those less fortunate, and to give back to his community. The Masonic fraternity contributes over $1 Billion each year to its philanthropic pursuits. Over $750 Million of that in the United States alone. The Crippled Children's and Burns Hospitals sponsored by Shrine Masons are world famous for their ability to help those most in need. Freemasonry traces its roots to the Middle Ages. It is from associations of stone masons, who built the magnificent cathedrals, castles, and monasteries of Europe that the fraternity started. These groups, eventually, began to accept members who were not actual working masons. At that time they adopted the term "Accepted" Masons, and Freemasonry was born.

Is Masonry A Religion?
No, it is not a religion. This is not to say that masons do not have religious beliefs. One of the tenets of the Masonic Fraternity is that its members are free to express their beliefs in the religion of their choice. However, it is also a condition of membership that each recognize that the wonders of the universe are not here as a result of our doing. But rather as a result of a Supreme Being, who brings order and purpose to our existence. Is Masonry A Secret Society? This is a widespread misconception, and is completely untrue. The so-called secrets of Freemasonry have actually been in print for well over a century. The fraternity does nothing to hide its existence, its purpose or its membership. The lessons taught in our meetings are meant for the improvement and education of our members. As such, there are portions of these lessons that are not discussed with those outside of the fraternity. Grand Lodge - Local Lodges A Grand Lodge is the governing body for a series of Local Lodges. The Local Lodge is where individual members belong. It is also where instruction is given and the actual work of the Fraternity is conducted. The first Grand Lodge was founded in London, England in 1717. It is from them that other countries petitioned for their own charters. They formed in groups, establishing their own Grand Lodges, which in turn gave charters to Local Lodges. Today, there are more than 150 Grand Lodges worldwide with a collective membership of more than 6,000,000. What Are The Requirements For Membership? Membership in the Masonic Fraternity is an act of free will. A man must ask for the opportunity. The potential member must be at least eighteen years of age, of sound moral character, and able to express his belief in a Supreme Being. One member of the Local Lodge being petitioned, as well as one other Mason, must be willing to sign his petition. His election is by unanimous consent. Masonic Charity The Masonic Fraternity believes that its members have an obligation to give back to their communities, and to benefit others. It is an important point to emphasize that Masons are taught to go about these tasks in a quiet, unassuming fashion. This is meant to impress upon our members that it is the work, and not the individual, that is of importance. It is also to preserve the dignity of those for whom the work is performed. The philanthropic work of our Grand Lodge jurisdiction and its appendant bodies are as follows:
Freemasonry - A Way of Life As the oldest, largest, and best known fraternal organization in the world, Freemasonry opens its doors to all who endorse its teachings. A strong belief in family, community, pride in our country, and sound ethical and moral values are what distinguish the Masonic fraternity. Our strength lies in the unity of our conviction to these ideals.

Masonic Body Support Charity
Connecticut Grand Lodge The Masonic Charity Foundation, Connecticut Freemasons Foundation
Scottish Rite Schizophrenia Research, Masonic Museum and Library, Children's Learning Centers, and Scholarships
Knights Templar Eye Foundation and Research
Tall Cedars of Lebanon Muscular Dystrophy
Shrines of North America Crippled and Burned Children's Hospitals
Grotto Dental Care for Children with Special Needs Program and an annual grant to United Cerebral Research.
Eastern Star Cancer Research and Religious Scholarships
Amaranth Diabetes Research
Chapter, RAM RICRA
Council, Royal and Select Masters Arterial Sclerosis

 

Interested? For membership information, please visit our How to Join


George Washington (February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731][1][2][3]– December 14, 1799) was the commander of theContinental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and the first President of the United States of America (1789–1797).[4] For his central role in the formation of the United States, he is often referred to as the father of his country.[5][6]d the official British dating method to the Gregorian calendar with the start of the year on January 1.
George Washington

Personal life Religious beliefs Monuments and memorials  Legacy Early life and education Career French and Indian War (Seven Years War) Militia versus regular army Between the wars American Revolution Presidency

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Portrait of George Washington byGilbert Stuart

The Continental Congress appointed Washington commander-in-chief of the American revolutionary forces in 1775. The following year, he forced the British out of Boston, lost New York City, and crossed the Delaware River in New Jersey, defeating the surprised enemy units later that year. As a result of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured the two main British combat armies at Saratoga and Yorktown. Negotiating with Congress, the colonial states, and French allies, he held together a tenuous army and a fragile nation amid the threats of disintegration and failure. Following the end of the war in 1783, King George IIIasked what Washington would do next and was told of rumors that he'd return to his farm; this prompted the king to state, "If he does that, he will be the greatest man in the world." Washington did return to private life and retired to his plantation at Mount Vernon.[7]

He presided over the Philadelphia Convention that drafted the United States Constitution in 1787 because of general dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation. Washington became President of the United States in 1789 and established many of the customs and usages of the new government's executive department. He sought to create a nation capable of surviving in a world torn asunder by war between Britain and France. His unilateral Proclamation of Neutrality of 1793 provided a basis for avoiding any involvement in foreign conflicts. He supported plans to build a strong central government by funding thenational debt, implementing an effective tax system, and creating a national bank. Washington avoided the temptation of war and a decade of peace with Britain began with the Jay Treaty in 1795; he used his prestige to get it ratified over intense opposition from the Jeffersonians. Although never officially joining the Federalist Party, he supported its programs and was its inspirational leader. Washington's farewell address was a primer on republican virtue and a stern warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars.

Washington was awarded the very first Congressional Gold Medal with the Thanks of Congress.[8]

Washington died in 1799, and the funeral oration delivered by Henry Lee stated that of all Americans, he was "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen".[9] Washington has been consistently ranked by scholars as one of thegreatest U.S. Presidents.

Early life and education

George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731][1][2][3] the first child of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington, on their Pope's Creek Estate near present-day Colonial Beach in Westmoreland County, Virginia. His father had four children by his first wife, Jane Butler: two died young, but two sons survived (Lawrence, born circa 1718, and Augustine, born circa 1720), making George the third son, but very much younger. Moving to Ferry Farm in Stafford County at age six, George was educated in the home by his father and eldest brother.[10] The growth of tobacco as a commodity in Virginia could be measured by the number of slaves imported to cultivate it. When Washington was born, the population of the colony was 50 percent black, mostly enslaved Africans and African Americans.[11]

In his youth, Washington worked as a surveyor, and acquired what would become invaluable knowledge of the terrain around his native Colony of Virginia.[12] His eldest brother's marriage into the powerful Fairfax family gained young George the patronage ofThomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, the Proprietor of the Northern Neck, which encompassed some five million acres. In late July 1749, immediately following the establishment of the town of Alexandria, Virginia along the Potomac River, 17-year old George was commissioned as the first Surveyor of the newly created Culpeper County, Virginia in the interior of the colony. This appointment was undoubtedly secured at the behest of Lord Fairfax and his cousin (and resident land agent) William Fairfax of Belvoir, who sat on the Governor's Council.[13]

Career

Washington embarked upon a career as a planter, which historians defined as those who held 20 or more slaves. In 1748 he was invited to help survey Lord Fairfax's lands west of the Blue Ridge. In 1749, he was appointed to his first public office, surveyor of newly created Culpeper County.[10][14] Through his half-brother, Lawrence Washington, he became interested in theOhio Company, which aimed to exploit Western lands. In 1751, George and his half-brother traveled to Barbados, staying at Bush Hill House,[15] hoping for an improvement in Lawrence's tuberculosis. This was the only time George Washington traveled outside what is now the United States.[16] After Lawrence's death in 1752, George inherited part of his estate and took over some of Lawrence's duties as adjutant of the colony.[17]

In late 1752, Virginia's newly arrived Governor, Robert Dinwiddie, divided command of the militia into four regions and George applied for one of the commands, his only qualifications being his zeal and being the younger brother of the former adjutant. Washington was appointed a district adjutant general in the Virginia militia in 1752,[10] which appointed him Major Washington at the age of 20. He was charged with training the militia in the quarter assigned to him.[18] At age 21, inFredericksburg, Washington became a Master Mason in the organization of Freemasons, afraternal organization that was a lifelong influence.[19][20]

In December 1753, Washington was asked by Governor Dinwiddie to carry a British ultimatum to the French Canadians on the Ohio frontier.[10] Washington assessed French military strength and intentions, and delivered the message to the French Canadians at Fort Le Boeuf in present dayWaterford, Pennsylvania. The message, which went unheeded, called for the French Canadians to abandon their development of the Ohio country. The two colonial powers were heading toward worldwide conflict. Washington's report on the affair was widely read on both sides of the Atlantic.

French and Indian War (Seven Years War)

In 1754, Dinwiddie commissioned Washington a Lieutenant Colonel and ordered him to lead an expedition to Fort Duquesne to drive out the French Canadians.[10] With his American Indian allies led by Tanacharison, Washington and his troops ambushed a French Canadian scouting party of some 30 men, led by Joseph Coulon de Jumonville.[21] Washington and his troops were subsequently overwhelmed at Fort Necessity by a larger and better positioned French Canadian and Indian force, in what was Washington's only military surrender. The terms of surrender included a statement that Washington had assassinated Jumonville after the ambush. Washington could not read French, and, unaware of what it said, signed his name.[22] Released by the French Canadians, Washington returned to Virginia, where he was cleared of blame for the defeat, but resigned because he did not like the new arrangement of the Virginia Militia.[22]

In 1755, Washington was an aide to British General Edward Braddock on the ill-fated Monongahela expedition.[10] This was a major effort to retake the Ohio Country. While Braddock was killed and the expedition ended in disaster, Washington distinguished himself as the Hero of the Monongahela.[23] While Washington's role during the battle has been debated, biographer Joseph Ellis asserts that Washington rode back and forth across the battlefield, rallying the remnant of the British and Virginian forces to a retreat.[24]Subsequent to this action, Washington was given a difficult frontier command in the Virginia mountains, and was rewarded by being promoted to colonel and named commander of all Virginia forces.[10]

In 1758, Washington participated as a Brigadier General in the Forbes expedition that prompted French evacuation of Fort Duquesne, and British establishment of Pittsburgh.[10]Later that year, Washington resigned from active military service and spent the next sixteen years as a Virginia planter and politician.[25]

 Militia versus regular army

As a colonial militia officer, albeit a high ranking one, Washington was acutely conscious of the disparity between officers in the militia and the regular British Army establishment. His eldest brother Lawrence had been fortunate to be awarded a commission in the British Army, as "Captain in a Regiment of Foot", in summer 1740, when the British Army raised a new regiment (the 61st Foot, known as Gooch's American Regiment) in the colonies, for service in the West Indies during the War of Jenkins' Ear.[26][27] Each colony was allowed to appoint its own company officers—the captains and lieutenants—and signed commissions were distributed by Colonel William Blakeney to the various governors.[28]Fifteen years later, when General Braddock arrived in Virginia in 1755 with two regiments of regulars (the 44th and 48th Foot), Washington sought to obtain a commission, but none were available for purchase.[29] Rather than serve as a militia lieutenant colonel, where he would be outranked by more junior officers in the regulars, Washington chose to serve in a private capacity as aide-de-camp to the general; as an aide, he could command British regulars.[30] Following Braddock's defeat, the British Parliament decided in November 1755 to create a new Royal American Regiment of Foot—later renamed King's Royal Rifle Corps. Unlike the earlier "American Regiment" of 1740–42, all of the officers were recruited in England and Europe in early 1756.

 Between the wars

On January 6, 1759, Washington married the widow Martha Dandridge Custis. Surviving letters suggest that he may have been in love at the time with Sally Fairfax, the wife of a friend. Some historians believe George and Martha were distantly related.

Nevertheless, George and Martha made a good marriage, and together raised her two children from her previous marriage, John Parke Custisand Martha Parke Custis, affectionately called "Jackie" and "Patsy" by the family. Later the Washingtons raised two of Mrs. Washington's grandchildren, Eleanor Parke Custis and George Washington Parke Custis. George and Martha never had any children together—his earlier bout with smallpox followed, possibly, by tuberculosis may have made him sterile. The newlywed couple moved to Mount Vernon, where he took up the life of a planter and political figure.[31]

Washington's marriage to Martha, a wealthy widow, greatly increased his property holdings and social standing. He acquired one-third of the 18,000 acre (73 km²) Custis estate upon his marriage, and managed the remainder on behalf of Martha's children. He frequently bought additional land in his own name. In addition, he was granted land in what is now West Virginia as a bounty for his service in the French and Indian War. By 1775, Washington had doubled the size of Mount Vernon to 6,500 acres (26 km2), and had increased the slave population there to more than 100 persons. As a respected military hero and large landowner, he held local office and was elected to the Virginia provincial legislature, the House of Burgesses, beginning in 1758.[32]

Washington lived an aristocratic lifestyle—fox hunting was a favorite leisure activity. Like most Virginia planters, he imported luxuries and other goods from England and paid for them by exporting his tobacco crop. Extravagant spending and the unpredictability of the tobacco market meant that many Virginia planters of Washington's day were losing money. (Thomas Jefferson, for example, would die deeply in debt.)

Washington began to pull himself out of debt by diversification. By 1766, he had switched Mount Vernon's primary cash crop from tobacco to wheat, a crop which could be sold in America, and diversified operations to include flour milling, fishing, horse breeding, spinning, and weaving. Patsy Custis's death in 1773 from epilepsy enabled Washington to pay off his British creditors, since half of her inheritance passed to him.[33]

During these years, Washington concentrated on his business activities and remained somewhat aloof from politics. Although he expressed opposition to the 1765 Stamp Act, the first direct tax on the colonies, he did not take a leading role in the growing colonial resistance until after protests of the Townshend Acts (enacted in 1767) had become widespread. In May 1769, Washington introduced a proposal drafted by his friend George Mason, which called for Virginia to boycott English goods until the Acts were repealed. Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts in 1770, and, for Washington at least, the crisis had passed. However, Washington regarded the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774 as "an Invasion of our Rights and Privileges." In July 1774, he chaired the meeting at which the "Fairfax Resolves" were adopted, which called for, among other things, the convening of a Continental Congress. In August, Washington attended theFirst Virginia Convention, where he was selected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress.[34]

American Revolution

After fighting broke out in April 1775, Washington appeared at the Second Continental Congress in military uniform, signaling that he was prepared for war. Washington had the prestige, the military experience, the charisma and military bearing, the reputation of being a strong patriot, and he was supported by the South, especially Virginia. Although he did not explicitly seek the office of commander and even claimed that he was not equal to it, there was no serious competition. Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, 1775. Nominated by John Adams of Massachusetts, Washington was then appointed Major General and elected by Congress to be Commander-in-chief.[10]

Washington assumed command of the Continental Army in the field at Cambridge, Massachusetts in July 1775,[10] during the ongoing siege of Boston. Realizing his army's desperate shortage of gunpowder, Washington asked for new sources. British arsenals were raided (including some in the Caribbean) and some manufacturing was attempted; a barely adequate supply (about 2.5 million pounds) was obtained by the end of 1776, mostly from France.[35] Washington reorganized the army during the long standoff, and forced the British to withdraw by putting artillery on Dorchester Heights overlooking the city. The British evacuated Boston and Washington moved his army to New York City.

Although negative toward the patriots in the Continental Congress, British newspapers routinely praised Washington's personal character and qualities as a military commander. These were bold articles about an enemy general who commanded an army in a cause that many Britons believed would ruin the empire.[36] Washington's refusal to become involved in politics buttressed his reputation as a man fully committed to the military mission at hand and above the factional fray.

In August 1776, British General William Howe launched a massive naval and land campaign designed to seize New York and offer a negotiated settlement. The Continental Army under Washington engaged the enemy for the first time as an army of the newly declared independent United States at the Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the entire war. His army's subsequent nighttime retreat across the East River without the loss of a single life or materiel has been seen by some historians as one of Washington's greatest military feats.[37] This and several other British victories sent Washington scrambling out of New York and across New Jersey, which left the future of the Continental Army in doubt. On the night of December 25, 1776, Washington staged a counterattack, leading the American forces across the Delaware River to capture nearly 1,000 Hessians in Trenton, New Jersey. Washington followed up his victory at Trenton with another one at Princeton in early January. These victories alone were not enough to ensure ultimate victory, however, as many did not reenlist or deserted during the harsh winter. Washington reorganized the army with increased rewards for staying and punishment for desertion, which raised troop numbers effectively for subsequent battles.[38]

British forces defeated Washington's troops in the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777. Howe outmaneuvered Washington and marched into Philadelphia unopposed on September 26. Washington's army unsuccessfully attacked the British garrison at Germantown in early October. Meanwhile, Burgoyne, out of reach from help from Howe, was trapped and forced to surrender his entire army at Saratoga, New York. France responded to Burgoyne's defeat by entering the war, openly allying with America and turning the Revolutionary War into a major worldwide war. Washington's loss of Philadelphia prompted some members of Congress to discuss removing Washington from command. Thisattempt&n