Barack Obama - Aldolph Hiter -
Rothschild Family and  Rothschild's Choice

Take control of the world main powerful parties and politicians by having control of the main wholesale newsagencies such as Reuters and Associated Press and other mainstream newspapers, magazines, television and movie companies so that you have the means to brainwash pople in any type of thought pattern or belief that the Rothschild and their powerful partner families want the average person to believe, and control both sides of the estabished two party political system that the Rothschild family have cleverly developed in most of the main western countries, so that no matter which of the two main stream parties win the election, the winner will be work under the control of the Rothschild and will be Rothschild's Choice.
Such as Barrack Obama and Adolph Hitler.
Then control the world's money supply by controling the major central wholesale banks in most major countries such as the Bank of England, the Reserve Bank of Australia, the Reserve Bank of America etc.
The control the whole energy supplies thorugh their partners the Rockerfella family and others


you have world control





Has Antichrist Come?

http://www.sarovic.com/has_antichrist_come.htm

 
Yes, he probably has. If you analyze the current systematic conquering of the independent countries of the world you can easily find that behind all of these aggressions a pattern of strong unique power emerges that includes economy, military, media, and politicians. I will try to present that this power belongs to the family Rothschild. I think Antichrist is the head of Rothschild family and his name nowadays is Jacob. He rules the world totally invisibly by the secretly possessed economic power his family has built through centuries.

How the family stays invisible while becoming richer and more influential in the world, is easily visible in the recent Russian affair “Mikhail Khodorkovsky”. Khodorkovsky is a 40 year old Russian businessman who started with the low Russian Government salary and in ten years he earned billions of dollars in owning the oil company "Yukos". But it should be said that all his skills emerged from the senior post that he held in
the Communist Party's Youth of Russia. That fact opened him the door to senior government officials including the President of Russia, Boris Jeltsin who enabled him to manage privileged businesses. Because of the wish to achieve the greatest profits, the legality of the Khodorkovsky's business was vary questionable. Then the President Putin got in power in the Russian Federation. As the result Mikhail Khodorkovsky was arrested in October 25, 2003 for charges on fraud and tax evasion. Then the control over Mikhail Khodorkovsky's shares of “Yukos" were passed to the banker Lord Jacob Rothschild. Source is the article from "The Washington Times", November 2, 2003: "Arrested oil tycoon passed shares to banker". But the article cannot be found in the archive of the publish house any more because it was deleted . Why is that? Fortunately, the copy of the article is available on the web page "Action Report Online". The significance of the article lies in the fact that it presents Jacob Rothschild as the real owner of everything Khodorkovsky allegedly possessed. Khodorkovsky simply did not have money nor the knowledge to step alone in such a big business and make the wealth he was ascribed. Jacob Rothschild had estimated that Khodorkovsky was close enough to the Russian government to enable him a good profit from Russia and that is the reason he hired him as his agent. But in this particular case, greed has forced Jacob Rothschild to make a mistake there. For the first time his secret operation has been revealed. 

Other Russian tycoons such as Boris Berezovsky,
Roman Abramovich, and Vladimir Gusinsky also made a fortune practically in no time just like Khodorkovsky did. The legality of their business is under investigation the same way as the legality of Khodorkovsky's business. That says they are most likely connected to Jacob Rothschild as well. After being accused for a business crime in Russia, Boris Berezovsky was granted a political asylum in Great Britain, the state where Lord Jacob Rothschild has a great influence. 

There is another very influential person without whose connections the transfer of the Russian wealth to Jacob Rothschild would not be possible. His name is George Soros. He was born in Hungary in a poor family. After the Second World War he immigrated to the West where he, not that long ago, miraculously and quickly became very rich by trading stocks. Most likely, that happened by the influence of the Rothschild family the same way as the new Russian tycoons became rich. These Rothschild’s financial operations would not be possible without the corruption of the Russian government. That was most likely performed by links that his man, George Soros established in Russia through his Institute called “Open Society”.
Please read the article  "The Secret Financial Network Behind "Wizard" George Soros" by William Endahl that presents his relationship with the Rothschilds well.

According to this introduction you may get the impression that the family Rothschild had interest only in Russia but of course that would be false, it operates very effectively through the whole world. Could we suppose that this Rothschild’s pattern for hiding their wealth behind other families was being implemented earlier in the past? Of course we could. Not only is the Rothschild family the richest banking family today but it was also the first excellently organized family that spread its business all over the world hundreds of years ago. In that time they had almost a monopoly in lending money to the European Kings. There is no safer and more profitable business than lending money to countries. Therefore, they could have easily later sponsor the rise of the families Rockefeller, Morgan, Goldberg, and others the same way as they sponsored Khodorkovsky and Soros. But it is also possible that these rich families may be relatives and partners of the Rothschild family. However, it's quite obvious that they do not compete with each other on the "free market". Have you ever heard them argue with each other? Certainly not. Why not since capitalism is all about free competition and they are the carriers of the world capitalism?  Simply, the answer is they are one body with one head. They are actually not capitalists; they are feudalists or even slaveholders. Please find more about the Rothschilds in the article: "Rothschild Family" at Wikipedia and in the article: "The Rothschild Dinasty" by Des Griffin.

The Rothschild family possesses a hierarchically organised structure of agents who buy everything valuable in the world. The Rothschild family may for instance, possess "Coca Cola" and "Pepsi Cola" and from the top of Olympus watching these companies fighting on the market. The Rothschild family, together with their partners might own half of the world but thanks to the capitalist system and its secret business regulation policy that is established practically everywhere, nobody except them themselves is able to know it. By controlling the main businesses and media they actually control the governments in the western countries, and that means they control the whole western world. If you follow the world policy you can easily see that democratically elected leaders of the countries change, but the policy follows the interests of the rich and therefore stays more or less the same. A high level of unanimous and even criminal policies of the world point out the fact that there is an invisible organization that rules the world. The facts I have collected about the Rothschild family, tell me that they are the leading family of that organization. I am talking here about a conspiracy that captures almost the whole World. Only the “evil axes” of the world such as China, North Korea, and Cuba are resistant to the influences of Rothschild family because they are closed to the world.

The roots of this conspiracy might have been described in the book “The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion”. The protocols are allegedly the minutes of one meeting of Elders of Zion that happened hundred years ago. You may find them here: The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion. The book gives low-level directions how a very strong Jewish secret organization may conquer the world. Most people think that the Protocols are a forgery made against the Jewish people and that is most likely the result of propaganda. I cannot see that the Protocols talk about the Jewish people, they present exclusive interests of a very narrow circle of people. And these people are very successful. There are many similarities between what the Protocols say and the situation we have today in the World. For example, all state governments of developed countries proclaim the same policy: formal democracy where real power is possessed by the rich, market economy where money has the largest freedom and power over everything, and NATO power that secure such ideology. Those who do not agree with such ideology are under an orchestrated attack of media, politicians, conspiracies, and military power all over the world. Any different idea from the mainstream such is for example mine does not have access to media, policy, science and consequently does not have access to the people. That is exactly what is defined in “The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion”. One does not need to be very bright to understand who has interest in it and who has the power to realize it. However, I doubt the Protocols are a finished program for the conspiracy against the world because it looks more like a propaganda pamphlet aimed to a narrow circle of people than like a program. Today, Jacob Rothschild has a much more developed manifest for his program, but there is no way we can take a look at it.

***

Family Rothschild tries hard to present itself as a regular, modest banking family. But, nothing is regular with the Rothschild family. They possess the most valuable assets in the western world and have such a financial power that might buy all promising ones. However, they hide their possessions, wealth, and power. Actually, they remind me of the mafia which pretends to earn money for living by owning a convenience store. Do you think that I exaggerate? They can easily produce unemployment and bankruptcy to ordinary people and take all their assets. The most famous case was the creation of economic crisis in USA in 1929. It is presented in detail in the article "How the City of London Created the Great Depression" by Webster G. Tarpley. They did it in order to make workers very afraid for their existence, in order to make workers dependant of their power, in order to take freedom from workers and middle class, in order to make them silent when they work hard for low salaries, in order to discipline them without complains. People who do not have a choice may be called slaves. They want total control over people and work hard to get it all the time. Fortunately, they cannot repeat such depression any more because now it would move the world leadership power to the countries which are not under their influences. Their worst nightmare is communist China on top of the world. 

Do you know that the US Federal Reserve Bank is economically and in any other way the most powerful place in the world? Thomas D. Schauf described in his article: "The Federal Reserve Is Privately Owned" how the Rothschild family, together with their partners, took control over the US Federal Reserve, over the US and over the “free” world. You can find the same information in: Zeitgeist - The Movie: Federal Reserves by Peter Joseph. The Federal Reserve Bank is responsible for the emission of money. The bank normally loans money to the state when the state needs it. The problem is it prints money from thin air and then takes it back from the American taxpayers with an interest. How much the American taxpayers owe to the bank right now you can find here. The annual interest of the debt which is by the way mostly privately owned, is approximately eight times bigger than the wealth of "today's richest man on the planet." Source: Treasury Direct - the official web site of the US government. Is something questionable here? If you try to find who is the owner of debt at the official web site, you would not find their first and last names but the list of companies, banks, funds, and organizations. They are mostly owned by a small group of associated people. If the number of principal owners was large, and if they were mutually independent, then they would argue and fight each other over the higher profit and we would see it. These people are far richer than the publicly proclaimed "richest person in the world".

Everything is cheat. If you, dear reader, try to print money and buy something with it, you would certainly finish in jail. The Rothschild family does exactly that, but their operations are legal, thanks to the accepted policy of the bank system, and to the corruption of the state system. In 1963, President John Kennedy ended the Federal Reserve System by the Executive Order 11110 and ordered the U.S. government to restore its Constitutional-mandate of controlling the money . President Kennedy was killed 5 months later. Before his death, President Kennedy openly stated that of a large capital conspiracy existed against humanity: "President John F Kennedy: Secret Society Speech". The result of the murder investigation was very doubtful according to Michael Parenti: "The JFK Assassination: Defending the Gangster State"
 
Who ever had any doubt about the intentions of the policy of the west after the aggression on Yugoslavia in 1999 should not have it anymore. There, all the masks were taken down. This was a pure imperial and fascist aggression waged against all laws concerning it and against UN charters. That was the crime. Formally, the president of US Bill Clinton started the war. He had normally resisted committing the crime but do you remember how long he
was threatened with the impeachment inquiry because he lied in the Monica Lewinsky case? I think that was blackmail. The case was completely forgotten right after the aggression started.

I have personally witnessed a very perfidious world policy created in order of weakening Yugoslavia and forcing it to give up from its sovereignty. After the free elections in 1990, the people of the Republic of Serbia kept the socialist party in charge while people from other Yugoslav republics chose pro Western governments. This is the reason Serbia defended its sovereignty strongly while other Yugoslav republics accepted the Western model of capitalism mostly unconditionally. In purpose to weaken the Serbian resistance, the West strongly supported pro Western orientated Yugoslav republics. That started the war and the national leaders, wishing to have an important role in the histories of their nations, made the war pretty nasty. The war finished when Serbia gave up from its sovereignty. But what really lies behind that? Yugoslavia had the best economy in the Eastern Europe and the war destroyed the very idea that the socialist economy might be good. Last but not least, the war made the economy cheap to purchase.

The aggressions on Yugoslavia were heavily supported and encouraged by the mainstream media and influential people including leaders all over the world. Biased propaganda and all kinds of lies were synchronically distributed worldwide on purpose to justify the aggression on Yugoslavia which lasted, in fact, for more than ten years. You, dear reader, might be deceived by the enormous propaganda machinery you were exposed to, but your leaders do not collect information there. They had the embassies and intelligent officers in Yugoslavia and they had to know what everything was about, but obviously, they didn't have the power, bravery, interest, or desire to say the truth. The participation in the crime was obviously easier to a large number of them. Yes, many of them, unlawfully, participated in bombing Yugoslavia, many of them killed people there.

The aggression on Yugoslavia had to be happening under the control of a very powerful but also totally invisible world organization and that had to belong to the Rothschild family. Many signs pointed out that George Soros, a man of the Rothschild family, had a lot of interests in Yugoslavia. Source, the article Portrait of George Soros by Neil Clark presents it well. What kind of interest does the Rothschild family might have exactly had in the aggression on Yugoslavia I can only speculate. But we can find it out by calling those who directly waged the war to be responsible for the crime they committed before any court, and then the Rothschild family would be certainly called upon for its responsibility as well. You may find more about the war in Yugoslavia in my article: My debt to Yugoslavia. The Rothschild family and their partners have more or less finished the colonization of Eastern Europe. They bought everything valuable there or will soon and they took control over all of the governments. The Russian government is the only one that might resist the Rothschild family.

The aggression on Iraq in 2003 was also waged against all existing international laws. That
is a crime as well. When an ordinary thief commits a crime he finishes in jail, when the president of the US commits an incomparably worse crime, he is re-elected. So how may that be possible? Simply, the media under the control of the Rothschild family, sophisticatedly convinces the people, not only this is a normal thing but also that this is the best possible solution. Can you imagine a criminal gets to a restaurant, orders a meal, and at the end asks a waiter to pay the criminal to eat? Worse than that happens to you but you cannot see it. You produce bombs for the rich, then you pay these bombs with your tax payments, and finally the rich use these bombs in order to enslave other nations and to steal their wealth. Do you understand what cheating is about? You even give your lives in for stealing the wealth of other nations. All presidents of countries or governments who joined the president Bush in the aggression on Iraq are criminals as well. So how come that might be possible? Simply, we live in total conspiracy where ignorance, lies, immorality, fear, and corruption raise and then rule everywhere.

I am convinced that an independent investigation would conclude that the Rothschild family stood behind the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and many others as well. Simply, it has such a big influence everywhere, so that the wars would not be possible without the support from the Rothschild family. The problem is the Rothschild family is above the law so that no one can perform such an investigation. Actually the law that might prosecute them at the world level does not even exist. The Rothschild family is simply addicted to get valuable natural resources and control worldwide, has means to achieve that goal at any price, and can hardly be stopped. They have committed aggressions on “evil axes” through all kinds of pressures all the time. If that would not bring a satisfactory result enough soon to them they will arrange wars there or commit a real aggression. However the most likely, Iran, North Korea, Cuba, China, and after that the whole world would be in great danger. Allegedly the Rothschild family had financed most of the wars in the last two centuries, and that tells us they had interest in them. In our current situation, there is no reason to believe that something might change in the future. In our current situation, the future is bleak.

Let's suppose the Rothschild family with their companions would take control over all of the countries around the world. Then, dear readers, you would be next. Even if you possess a small convenience store, they would open a bigger one next door to yours with half price merchandise. With their financial power they would easily be able to bear the losses until you are forced to close your business. Their last step would be the whole control over all of the people around the world and that means your complete slavery. Their needs are alienated and therefore cannot be saturated. Therefore, they are not able to do anything but Hell on Earth. 


But of course,
the Rothschild family with their companions will certainly face resistance by China and Russia, numerous world organizations, revolutionaries, freedom fighters, terrorists, and by progressive powers. Today, many brave people who fight back, already exist, but they are not well known because they do not have access to the mainstream media owned by the rulers of the world. Fortunately the Internet was invented and it gives you a chance to get different information. I recommend you read, for example, Michael Parenti, or Stephen Gowans
1 and 2.  They wrote numerous articles  you would not be able to find in mainstream world media. If you are interested to know what really happens in the world you better read them. 


*** 

The Rothschild family is very powerful but its power depends on you people. That is the reason they make you follow them even though you do not know it. They create a policy of your society and you do not know it. They have created your needs and possess the environment that satisfies these needs and you do not know it. You work for them and you do not know it. You buy their products and you do not know it. They lend you money and you do not know it. They take your taxes for their interests and you do not know it. They provide for you every day, directly or indirectly, with information they want from preschools, through universities, up to the evening news. That means you think the way they want; that means you are what they want you to be and not what you are supposed to be by your nature. They have established and support competition everywhere as a main tool for your survival. That makes you live in a destructive immoral environment. That makes you hate each other. That makes your life poor. Their capital is free in today’s world and you are not, you depend too much on them. You live in Hell even though you might not know it because they worked hard to make you not even be able to imagine a better life might exist. You are constantly afraid for your future but should be much more afraid because of their intentions. However, they have made you quiet even by having a chance to have a job. The corruption is larger when the position in society is higher. It makes you passive when you should organize and resist authorities. But there is also a problem; you do not know what you should do, or how to do it.

The situation does not need to be as bad as it is today at all. That is the main reason I have created a new system. The system I proposed will serve you people and not only the elite. The new system will allow you people to cooperate with other people and decide on your future. The system would allow you to create a policy of your society. You will be able to freely form your needs and to satisfy them. You will be able to get any job you want. The new system will give you freedom and will put a capital under your control. The system will relieve you from fears about your future. It will give you a normal happy life. It will make you to love each other. And according to the Bible, “lions and antelopes will eat together” meaning in the system I have proposed, all the people will live in a perfect harmony. Simply, it will make Paradise on Earth. That is not even very difficult to accomplish. For the beginning, you people only need to believe in the better future and not in the existing system the rich people have created for themselves. I just need to attract you to read my book and think. That should release you from the fear
that you may lose some well beings in the new system or from the opinion that nothing can be changed.

Sadly, I cannot get enough support even from intellectuals, scientists, and professors who are supposed to give the biggest contribution to development of new progressive ideas. When I immigrated to Canada, I tried to take a master degree in sociology at York University, Toronto. The mentor of the sociology department told me that I had satisfied the  requirements for the studies but my book “The Humanism” was not acceptable as my master dissertation work. So far the professors in Canada and in the US were actually not willing to even give me a review of my book. Why? Mostly, they do not have time for me. If they find the time they have difficulties to understand what my ideas are about. If they understand my ideas they are not willing to accept them because they turn upside-down almost everything social sciences have established so far. Besides that, some auto-censure is involved as well. Many professors, and specially the younger ones who might  accept new ideas more easily, are certainly concerned about their reappointments at colleges and universities. The development of new ideas has been suppressed everywhere and that is the main reason the policy of society does not change, even though huge needs exist.

Anyway, I do not need to do anything more than I already did in order to change the world. My book has defined the idea of new system enough to start changes that would one day make Paradise on Earth. However, the more persistent I am, the sooner the bright future of humankind would be established. When you people find out what the book is about you will certainly accept my idea and refuse to serve the rich. Please read the book and find out why. Without your support the rich people, including the Rothschild family, will be impotent. Believe it or not, the new system will enable you to organize yourself well and then you would be able to live without them but they would not be able to live without you. 

The new system I have proposed will stop the Rothschild family. My book and this article will disturb them strongly and that may put me in danger. If I were
Jesus Christ I would rely on God and on his protection. But even though there is a chance I may be Jesus, it still does not mean that I am Him. Dear people, if something unexpectedly bad happens to me, to my family, or to my
collaborators on this project, I want you to know that I blame the Rothschild family and their partners for it. I also count on that the Rothschild family cannot stop the realization of the system I have proposed. They cannot destroy the book already released to the world. The realisation is just a question of time. That means one day my name will be well known around the world. If a tragedy happens to me, to my family, or to my collaborators, I count on you people to prosecute and judge the Rothschild family. If it happens that I am Jesus Christ I count on God but also on Christians to never forgive the Rothschild family for any evil that they may possibly do to us. Also in that case I would pay special attention to them and give them special treatment in another world. That would have to make them very careful and should prevent them from doing bad things to us. There is a saying in the country I grew up: “God protects those who take care about themselves”.

This article talks exclusively about Jews. Therefore, I need to emphasize that I do not have any
intention to blame Jews as a people for anything. They have a culture that is not very admired around the world today, but once the system I’ve proposed starts to work they will become a distinguished people of the world. Speaking of the Rothschild family, the best choice for them lies in joining the system I have proposed. If they refuse they would lose everything. Namely, their wealth does not have value without support of you people. The new system will teach you how to find the values of God defined in the Bible and then you will stop supporting the antichrist. If the Rothschild family accepts the new system they would openly become one of the most distinguished families in the world. They may even rule the whole world because the system I have proposed would need someone to do so. But this time the leaders will really become directly responsible to the people of the world. Therefore in that case the Rothschild family would start contributing to creating Paradise on Earth.


Here is one of rarely published photography of Lord Jacob Rothschild (right). The picture was taken in his home in England. He is accompanied with the just elected Governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger and "the second richest man in the USA" Warren Buffet. 


January 7, 2004

 

References:

Zeitgeist - The Movie: Federal Reserve

 "Terrorism, Globalism and Conspiracy" by Michael Parenti

Rothschilds Exposed

The Money Masters

The House of Rothschild

Oh Canada Movie

Heeding Bible Prophecy

The Roots of Evil in Jerusalem

The Israel lobby in the US

Turning of the Tide by David Icke 






http://www.fpp.co.uk/online/03/11/Oligarchs071103.html

Arrested oil tycoon passed shares to banker

LONDON (Agence France-Presse) -- Control of Mikhail Khodorkovsky's shares in the Russian oil giant Yukos have passed to renowned banker [the Rt Hon Lord] Jacob Rothschild, under a deal they concluded prior to Mr. Khodorkovsky's arrest, the Sunday Times reported.



Jacob RothschildVoting rights to the shares passed to Mr. [sic] Rothschild, 67, under a "previously unknown arrangement" designed to take effect in the event that Mr. Khodorkovsky could no longer "act as a beneficiary" of the shares, it said.Mr. Khodorkovsky, 40, whom Russian authorities arrested at gunpoint and jailed pending further investigation last week, was said by the Sunday Times to have made the arrangement with Mr. Rothschild when he realized he was facing arrest.

Mr. Rothschild (left) now controls the voting rights on a stake in Yukos worth almost $13.5 billion, the newspaper said in a dispatch from Moscow.



[images added by this website]

Washington DC, Sunday, November 2, 2003

 The Washington Times

Arrested oil tycoon passed shares to banker

LONDON (Agence France-Presse) -- Control of Mikhail Khodorkovsky's shares in the Russian oil giant Yukos have passed to renowned banker [the Rt Hon Lord] Jacob Rothschild, under a deal they concluded prior to Mr. Khodorkovsky's arrest, the Sunday Times reported.

Voting rights to the shares passed to Mr. [sic] Rothschild, 67, under a "previously unknown arrangement" designed to take effect in the event that Mr. Khodorkovsky could no longer "act as a beneficiary" of the shares, it said.

Mr. Khodorkovsky, 40, whom Russian authorities arrested at gunpoint and jailed pending further investigation last week, was said by the Sunday Times to have made the arrangement with Mr. Rothschild when he realized he was facing arrest.

Mr. Rothschild (left) now controls the voting rights on a stake in Yukos worth almost $13.5 billion, the newspaper said in a dispatch from Moscow.

Mr. Khodorkovsky owns 4 percent of Yukos directly and 22 percent through a trust of which he is the sole beneficiary, according to Russian analysts.

From the figures reported in theSunday Times, it appeared Mr. Rothschild had received control of all Mr. Khodorkovsky's shares.

The two have known each other for years "through their mutual love of the arts" and their positions as directors of the Open Russia Foundation, Yukos' philanthropic branch, it said.

Russian authorities Thursday froze billions of dollars of shares held by Mr. Khodorkovsky and his top lieutenants in Yukos -- throwing control of the country's largest oil company into limbo and causing frenzied selling on financial markets.

Russian prosecutors said owners of the shares are still entitled to dividends and retain voting rights, but can no longer sell their stakes.

They said the freeze was necessary as collateral for the $1 billion that Mr. Khodorkovsky and his associates are accused of misappropriating during the 1990s.

Mr. Rothschild is the British head of Europe's wealthy and influential Rothschild family, and runs his own investment empire.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacob_Rothschild,_4th_Baron_Rothschild

Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild

Nathaniel Charles Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild, Bt, OM, GBE, FBA (born 29 April 1936) is a Britishinvestment banker and a member of the prominent Rothschild family of bankers. He is also Honorary President of the Institute for Jewish Policy Research.[1]

Life

Born in 1936, he is the eldest son of Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild by his first wife Barbara Judith Rothschild née Hutchinson. Rothschild was educated at Eton College and then at Christ Church, Oxford, where he gained a First in history, tutored by Hugh Trevor-Roper.[2]

In 1961, Rothschild married Serena Mary Dunn, a granddaughter of Canadian financier Sir James Dunn, and they have four children:

From 1963 Rothschild worked for the family bank NM Rothschild and Sons in London, before resigning in 1980 due to a family dispute. The chairmanship of the bank had passed from his father, who had chosen to follow a scientific career and had lost control of the majority voting shares, to his cousin Sir Evelyn Robert de Rothschild, and Jacob felt that his aspirations would be thwarted. He sold his minority stake in the bank, but took independent control of Rothschild Investment Trust (now RIT Capital Partners plc), an investment trust listed on the London Stock Exchange.[2]

Lord Rothschild was appointed a member of the Order of Merit in 2002.

In the Sunday Times Rich List 2009 ranking of the wealthiest people in the UK he was placed 145th with an estimated fortune of £360million.[3]

Business and connections

After resigning from the bank in 1980, Jacob Rothschild went on to found J. Rothschild Assurance Group (now St. James's Place) with Sir Mark Weinberg in 1991.[4] In 1989, he joined forces with Sir James Goldsmith and Kerry Packer, in an unsuccessful bid for British American Tobacco. His main business interests now are RIT Capital Partners plc, an investment trust company with net assets under management of £1700m (October 2010), of which he is Chairman,[5] and Spencer House Capital Management LLP founded with Richard Horlick (formerly CIO of Schroders), Share sale presents the first test for Spencer House, The Times, October 19, 2006. Accessed July 27, 2010.</ref> He also retains many other venture capital and property interests. On 17 November 2003, he took up his post as deputy chairman of BSkyB.[6] From his headquarters in St James's Place in London, Jacob Rothschild has cultivated an influential set of clients, business associates and friends who have extended his interests far beyond the normal scope of a banker. He was a close personal friend of Diana, Princess of Wales and maintains strong personal and business links with Henry Kissinger.[7]

His country estate has been a regular venue for visiting heads of state including Presidents Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton.Margaret Thatcher received French President François Mitterrand there at a summit in 1990. He hosted the European Economic Round Table conference in 2002, attended by such figures as James Wolfensohn, former president of the World Bank, Nicky Oppenheimer, Warren Buffett and Arnold Schwarzenegger.[8]

In 2003 Rothschild came under scrutiny when Russian oil industrialist Mikhail Khodorkovsky's shares in YUKOS passed to him under a deal they concluded prior to Khodorkovsky's arrest.[9][10]

Philanthropy

Lord Rothschild has played a prominent part in Arts philanthropy in Britain. He was Chairman of Trustees of the National Gallery from 1985 to 1991, and from 1992 to 1998, chairman of the National Heritage Memorial Fund. From 1994 to 1998 he was chairman of the British National Heritage Lottery Fund responsible for distributing the proceeds of the National Lottery to the heritage sector, an influential post which oversaw the distribution of £1.2 billion.

He was especially active in the project to restore Somerset House in London, for which he helped secure the Gilbert Collection and ensured the long-term future of the Courtauld Institute of Art. As a private project, he carried out the restoration of Spencer House, one of the finest surviving 18th century London townhouses, adjacent to his own offices.[11]

In 1988, he inherited from his aunt, Dorothy de Rothschild, the Waddesdon and Eythrope estates in Buckinghamshire, and began a close association with Waddesdon Manor, the house and grounds which were bequeathed to the National Trust in 1957 by his uncle, James A. de Rothschild. He has been a major benefactor of the restoration of Waddesdon Manor through a private family charitable trust and, in an unusual arrangement, has been given authority by the National Trust to run Waddesdon Manor as a semi-independent operation. The cellars at Waddesdon Manor house his personal collection of 15,000 bottles of Rothschild wines dating as far back as 1870.

In 1993, he joined with John Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Preston Candover to set up the Butrint Foundation[12] to record and conserve the archaeological site of Butrint in Albania, close to his holiday home on Corfu.

Lord Rothschild has also followed the Rothschild family's charitable interests in Israel and is the chairman of Yad Hanadiv, the family foundation which gave the Knesset and the Supreme Court buildings to Israel. He is also Honorary President of the Institute for Jewish Policy Research.[13]

Styles and honours

  • The Rt. Hon. The Lord Rothschild OM Bt. GBE DCL LLD DUniv PhD (2003–)

see also

References

  1. ^ Institute of Jewish Policy Research: Governance
  2. ^ a b Rose, Kenneth (2003). Elusive Rothschild: the Life of Victor, Third Baron. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.ISBN 0297812297.
  3. ^ Sunday Times Rich List 2009 online edition
  4. ^ Peippo, Kathleen (2000). "St. James's Place Capital, plc". International Directory of Company Histories.
  5. ^ RIT Capital Partners
  6. ^ Gibson, Owen. Rothschild to act as BSkyB buffer, The Guardian, November 3, 2003. Accessed July 27, 2010.
  7. ^ http://www.yukos.com/exclusive/exclusive.asp?id=6107
  8. ^ McGinty, Stephen (September 25, 2002). "Is Arnold the running man?". The Scotsman. Retrieved June 30, 2007.
  9. ^ Arrested oil tycoon passed shares to banker, The Washington Times, November 2, 2003. Accessed July 27, 2010.
  10. ^ "Russian tycoon 'names successor'". BBC News. 2003-07-14. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
  11. ^ Spencer House - Historical Home
  12. ^ The Butrint Foundation
  13. ^ Institute of Jewish Policy Research: Governance

External links



Russia: The Guilty Men

Berezovsky

Berezovsky

Gusinksy

Gusinksy

Khodorsky

Khodorkovsky

Abramovich

Abramovich

 ... on the, ahem, oligarchs
 
 Greek court rejects Gusinsky extradition
 Russian fraudster Boris Berezovsky granted asylum by Tony Blair's government
 Letter
 Reuters reports that The World Jewish Congress asked Interpol not to arrest Jewish Russian media magnate Vladimir Gusinsky
 Apr 25, 2001: Russian media tycoon Vladimir Gusinsky has flown from Spain to Israel, apparently in a new bid to escape the clutches of Moscow prosecutors
 Outrage in Berlin Conservative German politician claims Jews are "a Race of Perpetrators"
 Forward: Kremlin Targets Jewish Tycoons in War on Critics
 First Russian International Corporate Philanthropic Foundation (of Khodorkovsky and Rothschild): "I am launching the Foundation [First Russian International Corporate Philanthropic Foundation] in London to highlight the international nature of the Foundation's aims and to create an infrastructure from which the next generation of Russia's leaders will emerge."


David Irving comments:

A FRIEND inquires of me, sending me this clipping, "Are you tired of this yet?" But of course for me as a WW2 historian, the gradual onset of any new Holocaust holds a grim fascination: for is this story not the very stuff that anti-Semitism, and in the long run Holocausts, are spawned upon?
    Mikhail Khodorkovsky had a "previously unknown arrangement" with Jacob Rothschild for the latter to take control of the former's Yukos stock in the event that the former could no longer "act as a beneficiary" of the shares.
   The two are said to have known one another "through their mutual love of the arts."
   The exact nature of these "arts" isn't specified, as my correspondent notes: "It could be the Black Arts." That sounds like naked r*cism to me. 


Leonid Nevzlin

NEWS IN BRIEF -- probably not in your own national newspaper - Leonid Nevzlin, biggest Yukos shareholder not yet in jail, has been granted Israeli citizenship, raising eyebrows even in Jerusalem over the haste in which it was done. [source] Fact: Nevzlin resigned from Yukos to head the Russian Jewish Congress. [biography]

http://www.yukos.com/exclusive/3.asp

http://news.theage.com.au/business/exyukos-shareholder-convicted-of-murder-20080801-3oiq.html

Ex-Yukos shareholder convicted of murder

August 1, 2008

A Russian court has found a partner of Yukos oil tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky guilty on four counts of murder at his trial in absentia in Moscow.

Leonid Nevzlin, who currently resides in Israel, was found guilty of organising the 1998 murder of the mayor of the Siberian town of Nefteyugansk, a centre of Yukos's operations, and the murder of three others.

"The court has established that the accused, Nevzlin, organised the committing of several especially serious crimes," said the judge, Valery Novikov, reading from a lengthy official verdict.

Advertisement: Story continues below

Nevzlin was a major shareholder in Menatep, the holding company of the now defunct oil giant Yukos, which was Russia's largest oil producer.

The verdict was the latest assault on the reputation of Yukos's inner management circle.

The company's former chief executive, Khodorkovsky, is serving an eight-year jail sentence on fraud and tax evasion charges and faces new charges of money laundering and oil theft.

Critics in and outside Russia have charged that Khodorkovsky's jailing was a politicised attack orchestrated by the Russian leadership of then president Vladimir Putin to suppress his political activities.

Though absent from his trial, Nevzlin was represented by his lawyer, Dmitry Kharitonov, who insisted on his client's innocence.

"Nevzlin is not guilty," Kharitonov said, adding he would comment further once the reading of the verdict was complete.

Israel had refused to extradite Nevzlin to stand trial.



The Moscow Times

http://www.themoscowtimes.com/sitemap/paid/2003/11/06.html
The Moscow Times
Paid access archive

Global Eye -- Logical Conclusions

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The Game Concludes With Effects Galore

The talk of endings in this, the third and ostensibly final movie in the series, is so insistent that you may wonder whether the Wachowski brothers, who wrote and directed it, felt the need to reassure the audience, and perhaps themselves, that it was really, finally over.

Musical Rebel Plays by New Rules

Alexander Bakshi, one of Russia's most innovative composers, is currently in the spotlight as the man behind the First Moscow International Theater of Sound Festival.

All's Not so Quiet on the Eastern Front

Of the twelve stories gathered by Boris Fishman in ""Wild East: Stories from the Last Frontier,"" only a small handful warrant our attention. But for all its conceptual shortcomings, the book remains sufficiently entertaining to carry us to the end.

Cook's Corner -- Mini Carrot Muffins

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Medieval Goes Modern as Riga Rises

Riga is only 16 hours by train from Moscow, but with its clean, evenly paved streets and smiling, helpful residents, it might as well be on the other side of the world.

Don't Call Them No Toys

""These tin soldiers are not to be played with,"" said Viktor Konnov, an artist whose work is presently on display in the ""Tin Soldiers"" exhibit at the Russian Folk Art Museum. ""They are not toys.""

Keeping Classical Up-to-Date

Moscow's Autumn Festival of Modern Music promises to revisit and debut cutting-edge music ranging from jazz to the avant-garde.

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Over 70-odd years Yevgeny Petrov's wildly popular ""12 Chairs,"" inspired several movie adaptations and dozens of Russian catchphrases. Now the famous tale has been reborn as a musical.
http://www.theherald.com.au/news/world/world/general/newsmaker-mikhail-khodorkovsky/2037603.aspx

Newcastle Herald

Newsmaker: Mikhail Khodorkovsky

01 Jan, 2011 03:00 AM

THE protesters gathered outside the Moscow court, chanting ''Freedom'' and ''Russia without Putin.'' Their efforts, until they were removed by riot police, were in vain. Inside, justice was being meted out, Russian style.

On Monday Mikhail Khodorkovsky, once Russia's richest man, was found guilty on charges of embezzlement and money laundering. The verdict came as the 47-year-old was nearing the end of an eight-year jail sentence for tax evasion and fraud. The new sentence - 14 years in a penal colony, taking in time already served - means he will not be freed until 2017.

But most observers believe his real offence has nothing to do with balance sheets or false accounting. Rather, he dared to ignore a warning by the then president Vladimir Putin to Russia's oligarchs in the early 2000s to stay out of politics.

Khodorkovsky began funding parties and candidates who sought a Western-style democracy in an apparent attempt to produce a more open political system. After a campaign led by Putin against him, Khodorkovsky was arrested in 2003 and has been behind bars ever since.

Condemnation of Monday's guilty verdict - and the Kremlin's perceived influence on the judiciary - was swift.

''This and similar cases have a negative impact on Russia's reputation for fulfilling its international human rights obligations and improving its investment climate,'' said the US Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, despite improved relations with Moscow being a priority of US foreign policy.

Germany's Foreign Affairs Minister, Guido Westerwelle, also dispensed with diplomatic niceties. ''The way the trial has been conducted is extremely dubious and a step backward on the road towards a modernisation of the country.''

Khodorkovsky is not the typical political prisoner. After gaining influence in the Young Communist movement he was granted a licence to start his own cafe, which he turned into an import and export business.

By 1990 he had founded one of Russia's first private banks, but his big break came in the early 1990s when a cash-strapped president, Boris Yeltsin, auctioned off the state's assets for a fraction of their worth. Khodorkovsky bought the oil company Yukos for the equivalent of $US350 million.

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-01-07/yukos-international-gets-access-to-2006-refinery-sale-proceeds.html

Yukos International Gets Access to 2006 Refinery Sale Proceeds

By Martijn van der Starre - Jan 7, 2011 10:20 PM GMT+0800


The Dutch Supreme Court lifted the freeze on $1.2 billion of proceeds from the 2006 sale of a refinery by a former Dutch unit of OAO Yukos Oil Co., once Russia’s largest oil producer.

Yukos International UK BV “isn’t prohibited to dispose of the proceeds,” The Hague-based court said today in a statement on its website. It overturned prior rulings by the Court of Appeal and the District Court in Amsterdam.

OOO Promneftstroy, an investment vehicle controlled by U.S. businessman Stephen Lynch, agreed to buy the legal entity that held all Yukos International shares in 2007. That transaction was later canceled by a Dutch court, so there is no legal ground for Promneftstroy’s argument Yukos International isn’t allowed to claim the money, the Supreme Court said.

“This ruling is another positive step toward the ultimate resolution of the false ownership claims of Promneftstroy,” Bruce Misamore, Yukos Oil Co.’s former finance chief, said in an e-mailed statement after the ruling. “Yukos International UK BV directors are committed to ensuring that stakeholders damaged by the illegal expropriation of Russia’s most successful oil companycan someday benefit from the distribution of funds commensurate to their investment.”

Russian President Vladimir Putin’s government dismantled Yukos Oil, once Russia’s biggest crude-oil exporter, after hitting the company with more than $30 billion in tax charges. State-run OAO Rosneft became the nation’s largest oil company by acquiring most of bankrupt Yukos’s assets for $27 billion in 2006 after a series of forced auctions.

Foundation

Yukos International’s shares are currently held by a foundation run by former Yukos Oil executives and a number of independent persons, Barbara Rumora-Scheltema, a lawyer with the firm NautaDutilh, representing Yukos International, said by telephone today. The foundation’s aim is to ensure Yukos Oil’s former shareholders get the assets that have been preserved, Rumora-Scheltema said.

The foundation won’t distribute the $1.2 billion from the sale of Lithuanian refinery, AB Mazeikiu Nafta, as long as there is still a dispute over whether Promneftstroy owned Yukos Finance, Rumora-Scheltema said.

Promneftstroy’s lawyers have said they’ll appeal the Amsterdam Court of Appeal’s October decision that the sale of Yukos Finance BV, which owned Yukos International’s equity, by a Russian administrator wasn’t legal because it didn’t fall within Yukos Oil’s Russian bankruptcy, Rumora-Scheltema said.

Lianne Kelkensberg, a lawyer for BarentsKrans NV, which represent Promneftstroy at the Supreme Court, wasn’t immediately able to comment.

To contact the reporter on this story: Martijn van der Starre in Amsterdam atvanderstarre@bloomberg.net

To contact the editors responsible for this story: Angela Cullen at acullen8@bloomberg.net;


  1. Exclusive
    : Arbitrators hold Russian Federation liable for ...

    19 Dec 2010 ... Exclusive: Arbitrators hold Russian Federation liable for expropriation ofYukos shareholdings; modest damages owed to affiliate of ...
    www.iareporter.com/articles/20101220
  2. 419 scam: Nikolay Sintsov <nikolay.sintsov68@bk.ru> Yukos Oil

    10 Jun 2010 ... The criminals who send such emails have no connection to Yukos Oil. .../WORLD/europe/05/14/russia.yukos.exclusive/index.html?iref=allsearch ...
    www.419scam.org/emails/2010-06/10/01093655.43.htm - Cached
  3. Exclusive: Jailed billionaire hits out from cell - CNN.com

    14 May 2010 ... Mikhail Khodorkovsky, former head of Yukos oil company, ... In an exclusiveinterview with CNN, Khodorkovsky maintained his innocence, ...
    edition.cnn.com/...yukos.exclusive/index.html?... - United Kingdom - Cached
  4. Ex-Yukos shareholder convicted of murder

    1 Aug 2008 ... The verdict was the latest assault on the reputation of Yukos's inner .... Sucker Punch exclusive · Theage.com.au · Latest Business News ...
    news.theage.com.au/.../exyukos-shareholder-convicted-of-murder-20080801-3oiq.html
  5. Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild - Wikipedia, the free ...

    Accessed July 27, 2010. ^ http://www.yukos.com/exclusive/exclusive.asp?id=6107; ^ McGinty, Stephen (September 25, 2002). "Is Arnold the running man?". ...
    en.wikipedia.org/.../Jacob_Rothschild,_4th_Baron_Rothschild - Cached - Similar
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    25 Oct 2003 ... "YUKOS Deputy Chairman Mikhail Trushin Discusses the Company's Many Social Programs," YUKOS Exclusive. Accessed on September 13, 2003. ...
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  8. Yukos's Former Owners Get Access to $1.2 Billion From Lithuanian ...

    7 Jan 2011 ... Top Headlines · Most Popular · Exclusive · Worldwide ... Yukos International UK BV “isn't prohibited to dispose of the proceeds,” The Hague-based ... The foundation's aim is to ensure Yukos Oil's former shareholders get ...
    www.bloomberg.com/.../yukos-international-gets-access-to-2006-refinery-sale-proceeds.html
  9. Khodorkovsky Trial and the Real Issue Behind It - War and Peace

    31 Dec 2010 ... Main page » Exclusive » View ... Yukos was one of the biggest and one of the most successful Russian companies in 2000-2003. ...
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  11. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/europe/05/14/russia.yukos.exclusive/index.html?eref=edition_europe&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+rss/edition_europe+(
  12. Exclusive: Jailed billionaire hits out from cell

  13. Clearly, Putin finds me more than disagreeable.
    --Mikhail Khodorkovsky

    By Matthew Chance and Maxim Tkachenko, CNN
    May 14, 2010 -- Updated 2005 GMT (0405 HKT)
  14. Moscow, Russia (CNN) -- Russia's most famous prisoner, and once its richest citizen, says the latest corruption charges against him are designed to prevent his release from jail.

    Mikhail Khodorkovsky, head of the giant Yukos oil company, has been jailed since his arrest, as his private jet was about to take off, in 2003. He was charged with fraud and tax evasion and subsequently sentenced to nine years behind bars. A Moscow court later reduced the sentence to eight years.

    At the time of his arrest Khodorkovsky had been funding opposition political parties and considered running for public office himself.

    He claims his trial was part of a Kremlin campaign to destroy him and take the company he built from privatization deals of the 1990s. The Kremlin has denied this.

    Yukos, once the country's biggest oil producer, eventually went bankrupt in 2006 as a result of a $27.5 billion back-tax bill. A Russian court also ordered Khodorkovsky and his partner to pay about $600 million in back taxes.

    But in March last year, when Khodorkovsky and his business partner Platon Lebedev, who was also arrested in 2003 and sentenced to eight years, had only two years left on their sentences, they went on trial on new charges of embezzlement and money laundering.

    If convicted, they face up to an additional 22 years in prison

  15. In an exclusive interview with CNN, Khodorkovsky maintained his innocence, insisting it is the charges that are fraudulent.

    CNN was denied access to the former tycoon but managed to get written questions to him in his jail cell and he was able to respond.

    Why have these new charges been brought against you? Do you suspect political motives?

    The new charges have been brought to prevent my release from prison. They are undoubtedly politically-motivated since they have no merit whatsoever. To date, the prosecutors have failed to explain where they got the idea that all the oil produced by Yukos had been stolen. And that is exactly what I have been accused of.

    Are you simply defending yourself and your former business, or is there a bigger principle at stake?

    It was a painful experience for me to see my perfectly functional company laid to waste. However it is all history now. It is common knowledge today that things like a ban on businesses to finance independent opposition [parties], widespread illegal takeovers of property in Russia, and a manifold increase in corruption-motivated arrests of businessmen (their businesses are then seized), all began with the Yukos case.

    Since Yukos was first seized, the cost of corruption in the [Russian] economy has grown from $30 billion to $240-300 billion. My trial is both a landmark and a symbol for this country.

    Has your time in prison served any positive purpose?

    At a certain point in my life I realized that I personally needed to do something to help build civil society in this country. However it was difficult for me to break free from what was a comfortable business routine, both psychologically and in terms of the public's perception of me. In that particular sense, prison has given me a chance to stop and rethink my values.

    To what extent has this become a personal battle between you and Vladimir Putin?

    Clearly, Putin finds me more than disagreeable. It's difficult for me to say to what extent my persecution and prosecution are based on political calculations, self-interest, or emotion. As for me, my career in business has taught me to keep my emotions under control.

    What does your legal situation say about the rule of law in Russia?

    There is not one serious-minded individual in Russia right now who would tell you that this trial is lawful. There is talk of whether such methods of achieving political goals are acceptable, and whether the goals are appropriate in the first place.

    That the motives are political is no longer -- and hasn't been for a long time -- a subject for discussion. The legally sophisticated part of [Russian] society has also reached a consensus that charges against me are knowingly absurd. Therefore even answering a question about rule of law would be redundant.





Rothschild banking family of England


The Rothschild banking family of England was founded in 1798 by Nathan Mayer von Rothschild (1777-1836) who first settled in Manchester but then moved to London. Nathan was sent there from his home in Frankfurt by his father, Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744-1812). Wanting his sons to succeed on their own and to expand the family business across Europe, Mayer Amschel Rothschild had his eldest son remain in Frankfurt, while his four other sons were sent to different European cities to establish a financial institution to invest in business and provide banking services. Nathan Mayer von Rothschild, the third son, first established a textile jobbing business in Manchester and from there went on to establish N M Rothschild & Sons bank in London.

Endogamy within the family was an essential part of the Rothschild strategy in order to ensure control of their wealth remained in family hands. From the home base in Frankfurt, Rothschild sons not only established themselves in England but also in Paris, Vienna and Naples in the Two Sicilies. Through their collaborative efforts, the Rothschilds rose to prominence in a variety of banking endeavours including loans, government bonds and trading in bullion. Their financing afforded investment opportunities and during the 19th century they became major stakeholders in large-scale mining and rail transport ventures that were fundamental to the rapidly expanding industrial economies of Europe.

Changes in the heads of government, war, and other such events affected the family's fortunes both for their benefit and to their detriment. However, three historical events in particular especially damaged the interests of all Rothschild banking families across Europe: 1) the Revolutions of 1848, 2) the Great Depression of the 1930s and 3) Nazism of the late 30s until the Second World War.

Involvement in finance and industry


During the early part of the 19th century, the Rothschild's London bank took a leading part in managing and financing the subsidies that the British government transferred to its allies during the Napoleonic Wars. Through the creation of a network of agents, couriers and shippers, the bank was able to provide funds to the armies of the Duke of Wellington in Portugal and Spain. In 1818 the Rothschild bank arranged a £5 million loan to the Prussian government and the issuing of bonds for government loans. The providing of other innovative and complex financing for government projects formed a mainstay of the bank's business for the better part of the century. N M Rothschild & Sons financial strength in the City of London became such that by 1825-26, the bank was able to supply enough coin to the Bank of England to enable it to avert a liquidity crisis.

Nathan Mayer's eldest son, Lionel de Rothschild (1808-1879) succeeded him as head of the London branch. Under Lionel the bank financed the British government's 1875 purchase of Egypt's interest in the Suez Canal. Lionel also began to invest in railways as his uncle James had been doing in France. In 1869, Lionel's son, Alfred de Rothschild (1842-1918), became a director of the Bank of England, a post he held for 20 years. Alfred was one of those who represented the British Government at the 1892 International Monetary Conference in Brussels.

The Rothschild bank funded Cecil Rhodes in the development of the British South Africa Company and Leopold de Rothschild (1845-1917) administered Rhodes's estate after his death in 1902 and helped to set up the Rhodes Scholarship scheme at Oxford University. In 1873 de Rothschild Frères in France and N M Rothschild & Sons of London joined with other investors to acquire the Spanish government's money-losing Rio Tinto copper mines. The new owners restructured the company and turned it into a profitable business. By 1905, the Rothschild interest in Rio Tinto amounted to more than 30 percent. In 1887, the French and English Rothschild banking houses loaned money to, and invested in, the De Beers diamond mines in South Africa, becoming its largest shareholders.

The London banking house continued under the management of Lionel Nathan de Rothschild (1882-1942) and his brother Anthony Gustav de Rothschild (1887-1961) and then to Sir Evelyn de Rothschild (b.1931). In 2003, following Sir Evelyn's retirement as head of N M Rothschild & Sons of London, the English and French financial firms merged under the leadership of David René de Rothschild.


Other activities


Beyond banking and finance, members of the Rothschild family in England became academics, scientists and horticulturalists with worldwide reputations.

Nathaniel de Rothschild (1812-1870) was born in London, the fourth child of the founder of the British branch of the family. In 1842, he married cousin Charlotte de Rothschild (1825-1899) of Paris, France. She was the daughter of James Mayer de Rothschild and in 1850 they moved to Paris where he was to work for his father-in-law's bank. However, in 1853 Nathaniel acquired Château Brane Mouton, a vineyard in Pauillac in the Gironde département of France. Nathaniel Rothschild renamed the estate, Château Mouton Rothschild and it would become one of the best known wine labels in the world.


Beyond banking and finance, members of the Rothschild family in England became academics, scientists and horticulturalists with worldwide reputations.

Nathaniel de Rothschild (1812-1870) was born in London, the fourth child of the founder of the British branch of the family. In 1842, he married cousin Charlotte de Rothschild (1825-1899) of Paris, France. She was the daughter of James Mayer de Rothschild and in 1850 they moved to Paris where he was to work for his father-in-law's bank. However, in 1853 Nathaniel acquired Château Brane Mouton, a vineyard in Pauillac in the Gironde département of France. Nathaniel Rothschild renamed the estate, Château Mouton Rothschild and it would become one of the best known wine labels in the world.

Elevated to Peerage


In 1822, the five Rothschild brothers at the head of the family's banks in various parts of Europe were each granted the title of baron or Freiherr by Austria's Francis I, formerly Francis II the last Holy Roman Emperor. As such, some members of the family used "de" or "von" Rothschild to acknowledge the grant of nobility. Only Nathan Mayer of the English branch never bothered with the title, taking pride in being simply "Mr. Rothschild."

In 1847, Anthony Nathan de Rothschild (1810-1876) was created 1st Baronet de Rothschild, of Tring Park. On his death, the title went to his nephew Nathan Mayer Rothschild II who was subsequently elevated to the House of Lords and created Baron Rothschild in 1885 with which title the baronetcy remains merged.

In 1850 Lionel de Rothschild (1808-1879) became the first practising Jewish member of the British Parliament.

Philanthropy

he English Rothschilds and members of the other branches in Europe were all major contributors to causes in aid of the Jewish people. However, many of their philanthropic efforts extended far beyond Jewish ethnic or religious communities. They built hospitals and shelters for the needy, supported cultural institutions and were patrons of individual artists. Their donation of works of art to various galleries has been the largest of any family in history. At present, a research project is underway by The Rothschild Archive [1] in London to document the family's philanthropic involvements.

Members of the Rothschild family of England include:


Rothschild properties


All branches of the Rothschild banking family are famous for their art collections and a number for their palatial estates. Among the Rothschild properties in England were:


See also


References


External links






Mikhail Khodorkovsky, the former head of Yukos Oil Company, waits in the court dock prior to its session on July 12, 2004, in Moscow.

(Photo by Oleg Nikishin/Getty Images)





http://worldnews.about.com/od/russia/p/Mikhail-Khodorkovsky.htm

Mikhail Khodorkovsky

By , About.com Guide



Mikhail Khodorkovsky is an entrepreneur who became the richest man in Russia as he led the oil giant Yukos after the fall of the Soviet Union. A vocal critic of then-President Vladimir Putin, he was imprisoned in 2005 on fraud charges. When he was eligible for parole, Russian prosecutors levied fresh embezzlement and money laundering charges against him that could net an additional 22 years behind bars. On Dec. 30, 2010, Khodorkovsky and business associate Platon Lebedev were sentenced to 14 years, which takes into account time not served on the first sentence.

Born June 26, 1963, in Moscow to a Jewish father and Christian mother. Was a leader of the Communist Youth League in college, but opened his first cafe the year of his graduation, 1986, thanks to the perestroika and glasnost program of Mikhail Gorbachev. This swiftly grew into an import-export business that left him able to seize the fruits of free enterprise after the fall of the Soviet Union.

Personal life:

Married to Inna Khodorkovsky. They have twin sons, Gleb and Ilya, and a daughter, Nastya. Inna is a vocal advocate for her husband's release, and refuses to take the children to live in another country. "My wife and I are together for more than 20 years, and have gone through a lot," Khodorkovsky told Esquire in 2008. "I very much hope that my children too, knowing well since pre-school that 'papa’s in jail', will grow up understanding why I could not have done otherwise. My wife promises that she’ll be able to explain this to them." He has a son from his first marriage, Pavel, who also lobbies for his release.

Political affiliation:

At the end of 2001 and after Vladimir Putin became president, Khodorkovsky established the Open Russia Foundation, a non-governmental organization dedicated to the principles of freedom and democracy. He was also funding opposition political parties, defending independent media (which has come under increasing threat in Russia) and speaking out against the Kremlin before his 2003 arrest.

Career:

Khodorkovsky became one of Russia's most powerful businessmen by buying state assets cheaply and trading commodities, and his empire included not only the Yukos oil company, the country's biggest oil producer at the time, but one of the first private banks in Russia. He used a chunk of his vast fortune for philanthropic projects. In April 2003, Khodorkovsky announced a merger with oil company Sibneft, a move delayed by antitrust authorities. He was arrested six months later and charged with tax evasion and fraud, then in April 2009 was charged with embezzlement and money laundering.

Future:

Despite being behind bars, Khodorkovksy, who refers to himself as a "political prisoner," pens a number of essays, letters (one exchange landed him 12 days in solitary confinement) and op-eds warning of the authoritarian backsliding in Russia. His case has received attention and condemnation from key leaders across the world, but the Kremlin stubbornly maintains that he's a criminal and deserves to be behind bars. The fresh charges brought against him as he neared release raised alarm across the globe about the rule of law and political persecution. Luminaries including Elie Wiesel are lobbying for his release.

Quote:

"Russia must make a historic choice. Either we turn back from the dead end toward which we have been heading in recent years – and we do it soon – or else we continue in this direction and Russia in its current form simply ceases to exist." -- in the New York Times, Jan. 28, 2010


Mikhail Khodorkovsky

By , About.com Guide




http://www.iareporter.com/articles/20101220

EXCLUSIVE: ARBITRATORS HOLD RUSSIAN FEDERATION LIABLE FOR EXPROPRIATION OF YUKOS SHAREHOLDINGS; MODEST DAMAGES OWED TO AFFILIATE OF PROMINENT U.S. HEDGE FUND


By Luke Eric Peterson

An international arbitration tribunal in Stockholm has found the Russian Federation liable for expropriating the investment of a minority shareholder in the embattled OAO Yukos Oil Company.

In a heretofore unpublicized development, arbitrators ruled in September of this year that Russia breached the terms of a bilateral investment protection treaty between the United Kingdom and the Russian Federation.

The arbitrators, a pair of UK barristers and a retired German law professor*, ruled that Russia, must pay $3.5 Million U.S. to RosInvestCo UK Ltd., an affiliate of the prominent U.S.-based hedge fund Elliot and Associates.

The ruling marks the first instance where an international court or tribunal has ruled on the merits of an expropriation claim filed against Russia by former Yukos investors. 

A series of international claims have been brought against Russia alleging that the government effectively nationalized Yukos by using a series of fraud and tax evasion charges to drive the company into bankruptcy. Russia has insisted that its treatment of Yukos was a “legitimate exercise of (its) power to tax and to take measures to enforce tax laws.”

Modest damages may disappoint claimant


While the arbitral ruling in the RosInvestCo case marks the falling of a first domino, the financial reverberations are decidedly modest.

In fact, the tribunal’s $3.5 Million award will likely come as a disappointment for the claimant - which had initially sought some $75 Million (US) in compensation, and with later press reports indicating that the company was demanding up to $200 Million (US).

The late acquisition by RosInvestCo of the Yukos shares may explain the low valuation placed on them by arbitrators. Indeed, it was a matter of public record that lawyers for the Russian Federation had objected to RosInvestCo’s claim on the grounds that the company bought some 7 Million shares in Yukos at the eleventh hour when its share value had already declined precipitously as a result of a series of highly-publicized tax audits and criminal charges.**

Other claims still pending

Whatever RosInvestoCo’s return on its investment, the expropriation finding by the arbitral tribunal is likely to be seized upon by other claimants pursuing parallel claims against Russia, including the majority shareholder Group Menatep who are seeking tens of Billions of Dollars in a trio of arbitrations under the Energy Charter Treaty. While not strictly binding in other legal proceedings, the recent tribunal ruling – which has yet to be published - could be hotly debated in other pending cases.

Apart from RosInvestCo’s claim, and the Group Menatep claims mentioned above, Russia faces at least two further international proceedings arising out of the alleged expropriation of Yukos.*** A ruling in a claim brought by the Yukos company is expected in the coming months from the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. Meanwhile, a claim by a bloc of minority shareholders in Spain is currently being heard by a separate international arbitration tribunal.****

Spotlight in RosInvestCo case now shifts to Swedish courts


The Russian government has yet to comment publicly on September’s arbitral ruling, however lawyers for the Russian Federation have recently applied to the Swedish courts to set aside the arbitral award. Under Swedish law, the award can be challenged on certain narrow grounds prior to its becoming enforceable against the Russian Federation.

Indeed, Russia is already seeking to set aside an earlier 2007 jurisdictional ruling which paved the way for the arbitrators to reach their recent ruling on the merits. In the latest development in this ongoing challenge to the 2007 jurisdictional ruling, the Swedish Supreme Court ruled in November of this year that a lower court can hear the merits of a challenge lodged by Russia, which maintains that arbitrators lacked jurisdiction to hear RosInvestCo’s claim.*****

Collection battle could loom if award is upheld


In the event that RosInvestCo’s victory is upheld in the Swedish courts, it remains to be seen what success the investor will have in collecting the arbitral award. As has been well chronicled, the Russian Federation has declined to pay an earlier arbitral ruling in favour of a German investor who was expropriated by Russia in the 1990s. That individual, Franz Sedelmayer, has fought for more than a decade to seize sufficient Russian assets in various jurisdictions in order to collect on his award.******

* Prof Karl-Heinz Boekstiegel, a Professor Emeritus at the University of Cologne, chaired the arbitration. Meanwhile, RosInvestCo nominated The Right Hon. The Lord Steyn to the arbitral tribunal. Russia nominated Sir Franklin Berman KCMG QC

** For factual background on the RosInvestCo arbitration see the 2007 jurisdictional ruling here. 

*** For an overview of the legal fight over Yukos, see this feature article by Michael Goldhaber for The American Lawyer magazine:.

**** For our reporting on the Spanish shareholders claim against Russia, see this report.

***** The arbitral tribunal in the RosInvestCo case stirred debate when it ruled in 2007 that it could examine whether Russia committed an expropriation of the UK-based shareholder in Yukos. On its face, the UK-Russia bilateral investment treaty contains a highly-restrictive arbitration clause – which appears to preclude arbitration of any allegations that Russia had committed an expropriation. However, arbitrators interpreted another clause of the treaty, the so-called Most-Favoured Nation (MFN) clause as entitling UK investors in Russia to avail themselves of “more favourable” arbitration clauses found in other of Russia’s international treaties. Thus, RosInvestCo was permitted to make use of a more generous arbitration clause found in Denmark’s treaty with Russia. Under that broader arbitration clause, aggrieved investors can ask an international arbitral tribunal to determine whether Russia committed an expropriation.

****** For background on Mr. Sedelmayer’s travails, see this reportby IAReporter Editor Luke Peterson on the website of The American Lawyer magazine

http://www.iareporter.com/articles/20101220



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