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So you want to become the President of the United States of America?

Opposite sides, same views:- Opposames! 
see http://www.truefacts.co.uk/articles/a0002.html By Paul Vigay 25th March, 2000

Mr Tony Blair the Ex-Prime Minister Britain was a guest of the annual Bilderberg meeting in 1993, together with his colleague Kenneth Clarke. Hang on a minute though..... Aren't those two on opposite sides? 

What about Bilderberg attendees Margaret Thatcher and Denis Healey - 

and you thought we lived in a democracy where your vote actually counted.

Paul Vigay looks into the shady world of global conspiracies and manipulations.
His findings are at least eye-opening, at worst downright frightening. Have you ever wondered if there really is a 'global elite'? Some secret group of people who control world events and hide their agenda from public knowledge?

Could there be a group of people; politicians, heads of multinational companies, directors of world banking organisations and even royalty, who decide what policies will determine the way ordinary people live - and die?

As David Icke says, it is relatively easy for a small group of people to control the masses when everyday we give our power and freedom away, fearing to step out from the comfort of our 'hassle free zone'. Who perpetrate the 'Problem, Reaction, Solution' events which shape and manipulate our perceived 'democracy and freedom'? If you control governments and the media you control the world, or do you? What if a problem so terrible, so grotesque, so 'unbelievable' begins to occur with startling regularity? Do you demand answers? Do you demand what 'the government' is going to do about it? Do you pass the problem to someone else do deal with? What happens if that person you hand the solution to, is the person who created the problem in the first place? So forms the basis for the problem, reaction, solution method of controlling the people with the minimum of effort. Imagine a scenario where a lone-gunman walks into a crowded shopping centre and guns down a number of innocent people. Terrible enough, but what if at a later time, some innocent school children in a quiet, peaceful school are the targets? The more outrageous and disgusting an event, the more people will demand something must be done; "Guns must be banned", "Something must be done now!". 

Believe it or not, David Icke predicted just such a scenario in his 1994 book "The Robots' Rebellion", before we witnessed the terrible events at Dunblane. 

Supposing someone, somewhere wanted the end 'solution' to be "to ban guns". Obviously, gun clubs, enthusiasts and legitimate people are going to complain, perhaps with the backing or at least, indifference, of the general public. After all "it doesn't affect us does it". You need to somehow manipulate the public to demand that you offer the solution. You need a public 'reaction', for which you need to stage a perceived 'problem'. The more horrific and unbelievable you can make it, the more the public will demand what you wanted to do in the first place.

Incidentally, this could account for why Margaret Thatcher was one of Tony Blair's first guests at Number Ten, something the independent media were quick to pick up on after New Labour won power. The same goes for US presidents. Every one since Jimmy Carter has been a Bilderberg representative. Democrat, Republican - it doesn't matter. They all have the same policies, decided upon at top secret meetings held annually in hidden locations.

What exactly are 'The Bilderbergers' then? What are their aims?

This article, mainly extracts from "The Bilderberg Group... the Trilateral Commission... covert power groups of the West", by Robert Eringer, (Pentacle Books, 1980) tries to expose some of their secret agenda. As the concepts and plans behind the global elite could pose such a threat to our freedom, I will periodically return to this subject in order to keep Enigma readers aware of the world around them. If anything in this article, or any keywords on the cover of this issue, strike a chord with you, or if you have further information, please do not hesitate to contact me at the editorial address.


Well if you are thinking of becoming the president of the USA well you should consider becoming a Freemans as most of the USA Presidents have been Freemasons and/or have strong Freemanon and/ot other Fremaosn associated secret societies like Yales famous Skull and Bones Society, The Council On Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commision or the Bilderberg Group.
Also if you are thinking about becomeing the President of the USA and want to live out  your whole term of  office and/or make sure your reputation stays in tact, so you are not forced to resign form some scandal.Then again it pays ot be a member  of the Freemason and/or one of thir other associated secret societies like like Yales famous Skull and Bones Society, The Council On Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commision or the Biilderberg Group. other presidents of the USA like the Kennedy family and Ronald Regan and Richard Nixon tried tp buck the system and go it alone, without joining Freemason and/or one of thir other associated secret societies  like Yales famous Skull and Bones Society, The Council On Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commision or the Bilderberg Group. Look what happened to them. President John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was shot during a motorcade drive through downtown Dallas, so that gave Freemason Vice President Lyndon Johnson automatic right to be the President of the Uniited States of America. Ronald Reagan - shot and wounded by John W. Hinkley, Jr. If tge bullet had been a little to the left Ronald Regan would have doed and well known Freemason Vice President George Herbert Walker Bush would have automaticlly become the president of the USA a lot earlier than he did.  In fact Ronald Regan had stated publiclt that during the early days o fhis presidential election campagn that he definately would not have George Herbert Walker Bush in his team as Vice President and if elected President of the USA, he would have all secret societies investigated. Yet, for some reason he has not said publicly, he suddenly cxhanged his mind and announced that he was making George Busg his running mate as the Vice President of he won the USA Presential Elections. and certainly did not speak again about investigating any sectret societies. Richard Nixon was forced to resign as a result of the famous Watergate Scandal. In the face of likely impeachment for his role in theWatergate scandal,[1] Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974. He was later pardoned by his successor, Gerald Ford, for any federal crimes he may have committed while in office. Gerald Ford is was also a well known Fremason. So the Watergate Scandal was fairly convenient for helping Gerald Ford in the position of the President of the USA.
  • Abraham Lincoln - assassinated by John Wilkes Booth
  • James Garfield - assassinated by Charles J. Guiteau
  • William McKinley - assassinated by Leon F. Czolgosz
  • John Kennedy - assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald

Presidents who suffered attempted assassinations

  • Andrew Jackson - would-be assassin: Richard Lawrence (both derringers misfired)
  • Harry Truman - Oscar Collazo and Griselio Torresola attempted to storm Blair House, residence of Truman
  • Gerald Ford - would be assassins: Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme and Sara Jane Moore, in two separate incidences
  • Ronald Reagan - shot and wounded by John W. Hinkley, Jr
The history evidence is fairly clear, if you are keen about trying ot become the President of the United States of Ameerica, all these problems can be solved by joining uo with either
the Freemason and/or one of thir other associated secret societies  like Yales famous Skull and Bones Society, The Council On Foreign Relations, the Trilateral Commision or the Bilderberg Group. By doing so yo will make a lot of loyal friends, become rich and powerful, and even if you do not make it to the top of the food chain as the President of the USA, you are sure ot end up with a great well paid job as a public servant working as an assistant to one of the other Freemason Presidents of the USA. 

If you do join the Freemasons, and become the President of the USA, you mae have a great momument built with your name on it,  like the one build below to honout the First Freemason President of The USA George Washington. the name goerge seems ot be very popular when it comes to Freemason USA President..The have in fact been two George Bush Presidents. James is also a popular name to name you son,if you think yoy would like to groom him up for a shot to become the President of the United Stated of America.

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GEORGE WASHINGTON MASONIC NATIONAL MEMORIAL ASSOCIATION Centennial Celebration
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On February 22, 1910, George Washington’s 178th birthday, Masonic leaders from across the nation exterior551.jpgmet in Alexandria, Virginia and formed an association for the purpose of building a great memorial to honor America’s foremost Freemason. February 22, 2010, the 100th Anniversary of the founding of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association, will be a day of great festivities.

In honor of the occasion, the Conference of Grand Masters of North America, hosted by the Grand Lodge of Virginia, will be held in nearby Arlington. Delegates will attend the Association’s Annual Meeting and celebrate the 100th Anniversary and Washington’s 278th birthday at the Memorial.

At the Annual Meeting, a new portrait of George Washington as a Freemason will be unveiled. Painted by local artist, Christopher Erney, the portrait will be a new interpretation of Washington. Prints of the portrait will be available at the meeting. Complementing the portrait is a new video. It presents George Washington as the inspiration for the founding of America and explores the founding of the George Washington Masonic National Memorial Association. Underwritten by the Masonic Charity Foundation of Oklahoma, it will be available on DVD and as a download from the Memorial’s website for Masonic education.

The Memorial's new logo to commemorate the occasion was also designed by local artist Christopher Erney.  The logo combines the Washington Family Crest with numerous Masonic symbols. Its Square and Compasses is taken from the Memorial’s 1923 cornerstone affirms the Association's motto "In Memoriam Perpetuam" as it supports Freemasonry in a new century of service.

Following the Annual Meeting, the International Order of DeMolay will rededicate the colossal bronze statue of George Washington in Memorial Hall and reaffirm the role of DeMolay young men in Freemasonry. The statue was a gift to the Memorial from the DeMolay and 2010 marks the 60th Anniversary of its unveiling by President and Past Grand Master Harry S. Truman.

On display during the celebration will be the Trowel and Gavel used at the 1793 Cornerstone Laying of the United States Capitol by George Washington and the 1752 Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4 Bible upon which a young Washington took upon himself his Masonic obligations. 

The new White House Stones Exhibit will be inaugurated at the celebration. Each stone in the exhibit is marked by one of the Scots Masons who helped build the White House in the 1790s. The stones were discovered during the restoration of the White House by President Harry S. Truman in 1948. President Truman had the stones labeled and one was sent to each U.S. Grand Lodge and other Masonic organizations. The Exhibit reassembles nearly 50 stones. The Exhibit also includes minute books from Lodge No. 8 of Edinburgh recording the stonemasons’ marks and noting those who have “gone to America.” A matching Minute Book of Federal Lodge No. 1 will show those Scots masons forming the first lodge in 1793 on White House grounds. The exhibit is supported by the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, Southern Jurisdiction, Valley of Washington, Orient of the District of Columbia, and by the Grand Lodge, F.A.A.M., of the District of Columbia. A gala reception will be held in Grand Masonic Hall and while the Annual Meeting is being held the ladies will enjoy an entertaining program in the North Lodge Room. A Centennial Celebration souvenir booklet containing a brief history of the Association including historic and current photographs will be distributed and several commemorative gift items will also be available and on display.
2010 is a unique celebration year for the Memorial Association. Together we are celebrating 100 years of dedication to Freemasonry’s greatest brother and honoring the countless brothers who built and sustain the Memorial. Equally important, 2010 marks a pledge of rededicated service, trusting in God that the century ahead will be filled with success and achievement. The Association shines as a bright light of Masonry as it fulfills its mission: “To inspire humanity through education to emulate and promote the virtues, character and vision of George Washington, the Man, the Mason and Father of our Country.”

To learn more, please visit the Memorial’s website:  www.gwmemorial.org


What is Freemasonry?

Freemasonry is the oldest fraternal organization in the world. It is dedicated to promoting improvement in the character of its members. A Mason is taught to be a good citizen. To be of good character. To care for those less fortunate, and to give back to his community. The Masonic fraternity contributes over $1 Billion each year to its philanthropic pursuits. Over $750 Million of that in the United States alone. The Crippled Children's and Burns Hospitals sponsored by Shrine Masons are world famous for their ability to help those most in need. Freemasonry traces its roots to the Middle Ages. It is from associations of stone masons, who built the magnificent cathedrals, castles, and monasteries of Europe that the fraternity started. These groups, eventually, began to accept members who were not actual working masons. At that time they adopted the term "Accepted" Masons, and Freemasonry was born.

Is Masonry A Religion?
No, it is not a religion. This is not to say that masons do not have religious beliefs. One of the tenets of the Masonic Fraternity is that its members are free to express their beliefs in the religion of their choice. However, it is also a condition of membership that each recognize that the wonders of the universe are not here as a result of our doing. But rather as a result of a Supreme Being, who brings order and purpose to our existence. Is Masonry A Secret Society? This is a widespread misconception, and is completely untrue. The so-called secrets of Freemasonry have actually been in print for well over a century. The fraternity does nothing to hide its existence, its purpose or its membership. The lessons taught in our meetings are meant for the improvement and education of our members. As such, there are portions of these lessons that are not discussed with those outside of the fraternity. Grand Lodge - Local Lodges A Grand Lodge is the governing body for a series of Local Lodges. The Local Lodge is where individual members belong. It is also where instruction is given and the actual work of the Fraternity is conducted. The first Grand Lodge was founded in London, England in 1717. It is from them that other countries petitioned for their own charters. They formed in groups, establishing their own Grand Lodges, which in turn gave charters to Local Lodges. Today, there are more than 150 Grand Lodges worldwide with a collective membership of more than 6,000,000. What Are The Requirements For Membership? Membership in the Masonic Fraternity is an act of free will. A man must ask for the opportunity. The potential member must be at least eighteen years of age, of sound moral character, and able to express his belief in a Supreme Being. One member of the Local Lodge being petitioned, as well as one other Mason, must be willing to sign his petition. His election is by unanimous consent. Masonic Charity The Masonic Fraternity believes that its members have an obligation to give back to their communities, and to benefit others. It is an important point to emphasize that Masons are taught to go about these tasks in a quiet, unassuming fashion. This is meant to impress upon our members that it is the work, and not the individual, that is of importance. It is also to preserve the dignity of those for whom the work is performed. The philanthropic work of our Grand Lodge jurisdiction and its appendant bodies are as follows:
Freemasonry - A Way of Life As the oldest, largest, and best known fraternal organization in the world, Freemasonry opens its doors to all who endorse its teachings. A strong belief in family, community, pride in our country, and sound ethical and moral values are what distinguish the Masonic fraternity. Our strength lies in the unity of our conviction to these ideals.

Masonic Body Support Charity
Connecticut Grand Lodge The Masonic Charity Foundation, Connecticut Freemasons Foundation
Scottish Rite Schizophrenia Research, Masonic Museum and Library, Children's Learning Centers, and Scholarships
Knights Templar Eye Foundation and Research
Tall Cedars of Lebanon Muscular Dystrophy
Shrines of North America Crippled and Burned Children's Hospitals
Grotto Dental Care for Children with Special Needs Program and an annual grant to United Cerebral Research.
Eastern Star Cancer Research and Religious Scholarships
Amaranth Diabetes Research
Chapter, RAM RICRA
Council, Royal and Select Masters Arterial Sclerosis

 

Interested? For membership information, please visit our How to Join


George Washington (February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731][1][2][3]– December 14, 1799) was the commander of theContinental Army in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and the first President of the United States of America (1789–1797).[4] For his central role in the formation of the United States, he is often referred to as the father of his country.[5][6]d the official British dating method to the Gregorian calendar with the start of the year on January 1.
George Washington

Personal life Religious beliefs Monuments and memorials  Legacy Early life and education Career French and Indian War (Seven Years War) Militia versus regular army Between the wars American Revolution Presidency

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Portrait of George Washington byGilbert Stuart

The Continental Congress appointed Washington commander-in-chief of the American revolutionary forces in 1775. The following year, he forced the British out of Boston, lost New York City, and crossed the Delaware River in New Jersey, defeating the surprised enemy units later that year. As a result of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured the two main British combat armies at Saratoga and Yorktown. Negotiating with Congress, the colonial states, and French allies, he held together a tenuous army and a fragile nation amid the threats of disintegration and failure. Following the end of the war in 1783, King George IIIasked what Washington would do next and was told of rumors that he'd return to his farm; this prompted the king to state, "If he does that, he will be the greatest man in the world." Washington did return to private life and retired to his plantation at Mount Vernon.[7]

He presided over the Philadelphia Convention that drafted the United States Constitution in 1787 because of general dissatisfaction with the Articles of Confederation. Washington became President of the United States in 1789 and established many of the customs and usages of the new government's executive department. He sought to create a nation capable of surviving in a world torn asunder by war between Britain and France. His unilateral Proclamation of Neutrality of 1793 provided a basis for avoiding any involvement in foreign conflicts. He supported plans to build a strong central government by funding thenational debt, implementing an effective tax system, and creating a national bank. Washington avoided the temptation of war and a decade of peace with Britain began with the Jay Treaty in 1795; he used his prestige to get it ratified over intense opposition from the Jeffersonians. Although never officially joining the Federalist Party, he supported its programs and was its inspirational leader. Washington's farewell address was a primer on republican virtue and a stern warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars.

Washington was awarded the very first Congressional Gold Medal with the Thanks of Congress.[8]

Washington died in 1799, and the funeral oration delivered by Henry Lee stated that of all Americans, he was "first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen".[9] Washington has been consistently ranked by scholars as one of thegreatest U.S. Presidents.

Early life and education

George Washington was born on February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731][1][2][3] the first child of Augustine Washington and his second wife, Mary Ball Washington, on their Pope's Creek Estate near present-day Colonial Beach in Westmoreland County, Virginia. His father had four children by his first wife, Jane Butler: two died young, but two sons survived (Lawrence, born circa 1718, and Augustine, born circa 1720), making George the third son, but very much younger. Moving to Ferry Farm in Stafford County at age six, George was educated in the home by his father and eldest brother.[10] The growth of tobacco as a commodity in Virginia could be measured by the number of slaves imported to cultivate it. When Washington was born, the population of the colony was 50 percent black, mostly enslaved Africans and African Americans.[11]

In his youth, Washington worked as a surveyor, and acquired what would become invaluable knowledge of the terrain around his native Colony of Virginia.[12] His eldest brother's marriage into the powerful Fairfax family gained young George the patronage ofThomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, the Proprietor of the Northern Neck, which encompassed some five million acres. In late July 1749, immediately following the establishment of the town of Alexandria, Virginia along the Potomac River, 17-year old George was commissioned as the first Surveyor of the newly created Culpeper County, Virginia in the interior of the colony. This appointment was undoubtedly secured at the behest of Lord Fairfax and his cousin (and resident land agent) William Fairfax of Belvoir, who sat on the Governor's Council.[13]

Career

Washington embarked upon a career as a planter, which historians defined as those who held 20 or more slaves. In 1748 he was invited to help survey Lord Fairfax's lands west of the Blue Ridge. In 1749, he was appointed to his first public office, surveyor of newly created Culpeper County.[10][14] Through his half-brother, Lawrence Washington, he became interested in theOhio Company, which aimed to exploit Western lands. In 1751, George and his half-brother traveled to Barbados, staying at Bush Hill House,[15] hoping for an improvement in Lawrence's tuberculosis. This was the only time George Washington traveled outside what is now the United States.[16] After Lawrence's death in 1752, George inherited part of his estate and took over some of Lawrence's duties as adjutant of the colony.[17]

In late 1752, Virginia's newly arrived Governor, Robert Dinwiddie, divided command of the militia into four regions and George applied for one of the commands, his only qualifications being his zeal and being the younger brother of the former adjutant. Washington was appointed a district adjutant general in the Virginia militia in 1752,[10] which appointed him Major Washington at the age of 20. He was charged with training the militia in the quarter assigned to him.[18] At age 21, inFredericksburg, Washington became a Master Mason in the organization of Freemasons, afraternal organization that was a lifelong influence.[19][20]

In December 1753, Washington was asked by Governor Dinwiddie to carry a British ultimatum to the French Canadians on the Ohio frontier.[10] Washington assessed French military strength and intentions, and delivered the message to the French Canadians at Fort Le Boeuf in present dayWaterford, Pennsylvania. The message, which went unheeded, called for the French Canadians to abandon their development of the Ohio country. The two colonial powers were heading toward worldwide conflict. Washington's report on the affair was widely read on both sides of the Atlantic.

French and Indian War (Seven Years War)

In 1754, Dinwiddie commissioned Washington a Lieutenant Colonel and ordered him to lead an expedition to Fort Duquesne to drive out the French Canadians.[10] With his American Indian allies led by Tanacharison, Washington and his troops ambushed a French Canadian scouting party of some 30 men, led by Joseph Coulon de Jumonville.[21] Washington and his troops were subsequently overwhelmed at Fort Necessity by a larger and better positioned French Canadian and Indian force, in what was Washington's only military surrender. The terms of surrender included a statement that Washington had assassinated Jumonville after the ambush. Washington could not read French, and, unaware of what it said, signed his name.[22] Released by the French Canadians, Washington returned to Virginia, where he was cleared of blame for the defeat, but resigned because he did not like the new arrangement of the Virginia Militia.[22]

In 1755, Washington was an aide to British General Edward Braddock on the ill-fated Monongahela expedition.[10] This was a major effort to retake the Ohio Country. While Braddock was killed and the expedition ended in disaster, Washington distinguished himself as the Hero of the Monongahela.[23] While Washington's role during the battle has been debated, biographer Joseph Ellis asserts that Washington rode back and forth across the battlefield, rallying the remnant of the British and Virginian forces to a retreat.[24]Subsequent to this action, Washington was given a difficult frontier command in the Virginia mountains, and was rewarded by being promoted to colonel and named commander of all Virginia forces.[10]

In 1758, Washington participated as a Brigadier General in the Forbes expedition that prompted French evacuation of Fort Duquesne, and British establishment of Pittsburgh.[10]Later that year, Washington resigned from active military service and spent the next sixteen years as a Virginia planter and politician.[25]

 Militia versus regular army

As a colonial militia officer, albeit a high ranking one, Washington was acutely conscious of the disparity between officers in the militia and the regular British Army establishment. His eldest brother Lawrence had been fortunate to be awarded a commission in the British Army, as "Captain in a Regiment of Foot", in summer 1740, when the British Army raised a new regiment (the 61st Foot, known as Gooch's American Regiment) in the colonies, for service in the West Indies during the War of Jenkins' Ear.[26][27] Each colony was allowed to appoint its own company officers—the captains and lieutenants—and signed commissions were distributed by Colonel William Blakeney to the various governors.[28]Fifteen years later, when General Braddock arrived in Virginia in 1755 with two regiments of regulars (the 44th and 48th Foot), Washington sought to obtain a commission, but none were available for purchase.[29] Rather than serve as a militia lieutenant colonel, where he would be outranked by more junior officers in the regulars, Washington chose to serve in a private capacity as aide-de-camp to the general; as an aide, he could command British regulars.[30] Following Braddock's defeat, the British Parliament decided in November 1755 to create a new Royal American Regiment of Foot—later renamed King's Royal Rifle Corps. Unlike the earlier "American Regiment" of 1740–42, all of the officers were recruited in England and Europe in early 1756.

 Between the wars

On January 6, 1759, Washington married the widow Martha Dandridge Custis. Surviving letters suggest that he may have been in love at the time with Sally Fairfax, the wife of a friend. Some historians believe George and Martha were distantly related.

Nevertheless, George and Martha made a good marriage, and together raised her two children from her previous marriage, John Parke Custisand Martha Parke Custis, affectionately called "Jackie" and "Patsy" by the family. Later the Washingtons raised two of Mrs. Washington's grandchildren, Eleanor Parke Custis and George Washington Parke Custis. George and Martha never had any children together—his earlier bout with smallpox followed, possibly, by tuberculosis may have made him sterile. The newlywed couple moved to Mount Vernon, where he took up the life of a planter and political figure.[31]

Washington's marriage to Martha, a wealthy widow, greatly increased his property holdings and social standing. He acquired one-third of the 18,000 acre (73 km²) Custis estate upon his marriage, and managed the remainder on behalf of Martha's children. He frequently bought additional land in his own name. In addition, he was granted land in what is now West Virginia as a bounty for his service in the French and Indian War. By 1775, Washington had doubled the size of Mount Vernon to 6,500 acres (26 km2), and had increased the slave population there to more than 100 persons. As a respected military hero and large landowner, he held local office and was elected to the Virginia provincial legislature, the House of Burgesses, beginning in 1758.[32]

Washington lived an aristocratic lifestyle—fox hunting was a favorite leisure activity. Like most Virginia planters, he imported luxuries and other goods from England and paid for them by exporting his tobacco crop. Extravagant spending and the unpredictability of the tobacco market meant that many Virginia planters of Washington's day were losing money. (Thomas Jefferson, for example, would die deeply in debt.)

Washington began to pull himself out of debt by diversification. By 1766, he had switched Mount Vernon's primary cash crop from tobacco to wheat, a crop which could be sold in America, and diversified operations to include flour milling, fishing, horse breeding, spinning, and weaving. Patsy Custis's death in 1773 from epilepsy enabled Washington to pay off his British creditors, since half of her inheritance passed to him.[33]

During these years, Washington concentrated on his business activities and remained somewhat aloof from politics. Although he expressed opposition to the 1765 Stamp Act, the first direct tax on the colonies, he did not take a leading role in the growing colonial resistance until after protests of the Townshend Acts (enacted in 1767) had become widespread. In May 1769, Washington introduced a proposal drafted by his friend George Mason, which called for Virginia to boycott English goods until the Acts were repealed. Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts in 1770, and, for Washington at least, the crisis had passed. However, Washington regarded the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774 as "an Invasion of our Rights and Privileges." In July 1774, he chaired the meeting at which the "Fairfax Resolves" were adopted, which called for, among other things, the convening of a Continental Congress. In August, Washington attended theFirst Virginia Convention, where he was selected as a delegate to the First Continental Congress.[34]

American Revolution

After fighting broke out in April 1775, Washington appeared at the Second Continental Congress in military uniform, signaling that he was prepared for war. Washington had the prestige, the military experience, the charisma and military bearing, the reputation of being a strong patriot, and he was supported by the South, especially Virginia. Although he did not explicitly seek the office of commander and even claimed that he was not equal to it, there was no serious competition. Congress created the Continental Army on June 14, 1775. Nominated by John Adams of Massachusetts, Washington was then appointed Major General and elected by Congress to be Commander-in-chief.[10]

Washington assumed command of the Continental Army in the field at Cambridge, Massachusetts in July 1775,[10] during the ongoing siege of Boston. Realizing his army's desperate shortage of gunpowder, Washington asked for new sources. British arsenals were raided (including some in the Caribbean) and some manufacturing was attempted; a barely adequate supply (about 2.5 million pounds) was obtained by the end of 1776, mostly from France.[35] Washington reorganized the army during the long standoff, and forced the British to withdraw by putting artillery on Dorchester Heights overlooking the city. The British evacuated Boston and Washington moved his army to New York City.

Although negative toward the patriots in the Continental Congress, British newspapers routinely praised Washington's personal character and qualities as a military commander. These were bold articles about an enemy general who commanded an army in a cause that many Britons believed would ruin the empire.[36] Washington's refusal to become involved in politics buttressed his reputation as a man fully committed to the military mission at hand and above the factional fray.

In August 1776, British General William Howe launched a massive naval and land campaign designed to seize New York and offer a negotiated settlement. The Continental Army under Washington engaged the enemy for the first time as an army of the newly declared independent United States at the Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the entire war. His army's subsequent nighttime retreat across the East River without the loss of a single life or materiel has been seen by some historians as one of Washington's greatest military feats.[37] This and several other British victories sent Washington scrambling out of New York and across New Jersey, which left the future of the Continental Army in doubt. On the night of December 25, 1776, Washington staged a counterattack, leading the American forces across the Delaware River to capture nearly 1,000 Hessians in Trenton, New Jersey. Washington followed up his victory at Trenton with another one at Princeton in early January. These victories alone were not enough to ensure ultimate victory, however, as many did not reenlist or deserted during the harsh winter. Washington reorganized the army with increased rewards for staying and punishment for desertion, which raised troop numbers effectively for subsequent battles.[38]

British forces defeated Washington's troops in the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777. Howe outmaneuvered Washington and marched into Philadelphia unopposed on September 26. Washington's army unsuccessfully attacked the British garrison at Germantown in early October. Meanwhile, Burgoyne, out of reach from help from Howe, was trapped and forced to surrender his entire army at Saratoga, New York. France responded to Burgoyne's defeat by entering the war, openly allying with America and turning the Revolutionary War into a major worldwide war. Washington's loss of Philadelphia prompted some members of Congress to discuss removing Washington from command. Thisattempt failed after Washington's supporters rallied behind him.[39]

Washington's army camped at Valley Forge in December 1777, staying there for the next six months. Over the winter, 2,500 men of the 10,000-strong force died from disease and exposure. The next spring, however, the army emerged from Valley Forge in good order, thanks in part to a full-scale training program supervised by Baron von Steuben, a veteran of the Prussian general staff. The British evacuated Philadelphia to New York in 1778 but Washington attacked them at Monmouth and drove them from the battlefield. Afterwards, the British continued to head towards New York. Washington moved his army outside of New York.

In the summer of 1779 at Washington's direction, General John Sullivan carried out a decisive scorched earth campaign that destroyed at least forty Iroquois villages throughout present-day central and upstate New York in retaliation for Iroquois and Tory attacks against American settlements earlier in the war. Washington delivered the final blow to the British in 1781, after a French naval victory allowed American and French forces to trap a British army in Virginia. The surrender at Yorktown on October 17, 1781, marked the end of most fighting. Though known for his successes in the war and of his life that followed, Washington suffered many defeats before achieving victory.

In March 1783, Washington used his influence to disperse a group of Army officers who had threatened to confront Congress regarding their back pay. By the Treaty of Paris (signed that September), Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States. Washington disbanded his army and, on November 2, gave an eloquent farewell address to his soldiers.[40]

On November 25, the British evacuated New York City, and Washington and the governor took possession. At Fraunces Tavern on December 4, Washington formally bade his officers farewell and on December 23, 1783, he resigned his commission as commander-in-chief, emulating the Roman general Cincinnatus. He was an exemplar of the republican ideal of citizen leadership who rejected power. During this period, there was no position of President of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, the forerunner to the Constitution.

Washington's retirement to Mount Vernon was short-lived. He made an exploratory trip to the western frontier in 1784,[10] was persuaded to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787, and was unanimously elected president of the Convention. He participated little in the debates involved (though he did vote for or against the various articles), but his high prestige maintained collegiality and kept the delegates at their labors. The delegates designed the presidency with Washington in mind, and allowed him to define the office once elected. After the Convention, his support convinced many, including the Virginia legislature, to vote for ratification; the new Constitution was ratified by all 13 states.

Presidency

The Electoral College elected Washington unanimously in 1789, and again in the 1792 election; he remains the only president to have received 100% of the electoral votes. At his inauguration, he insisted on having Barbados Rum served.[41] John Adams was elected vice president. Washington took the oath of office as the first President under the Constitution for the United States of America on April 30, 1789, at Federal Hall in New York City although, at first, he had not wanted the position.[42]

The 1st United States Congress voted to pay Washington a salary of $25,000 a year—a large sum in 1789. Washington, already wealthy, declined the salary, since he valued his image as a selfless public servant. At the urging of Congress, however, he ultimately accepted the payment, to avoid setting a precedent whereby the presidency would be perceived as limited only to independently wealthy individuals who could serve without any salary. Washington attended carefully to the pomp and ceremony of office, making sure that the titles and trappings were suitably republican and never emulated European royal courts. To that end, he preferred the title "Mr. President" to the more majestic names suggested.

Washington proved an able administrator. An excellent delegator and judge of talent and character, he held regular cabinet meetings to debate issues before making a final decision. In handling routine tasks, he was "systematic, orderly, energetic, solicitous of the opinion of others but decisive, intent upon general goals and the consistency of particular actions with them."[43]

Washington reluctantly served a second term as president. He refused to run for a third, establishing the customary policy of a maximum of two terms for a president which later became law by the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.[44]

Domestic issues

Washington was not a member of any political party and hoped that they would not be formed, fearing conflict and stagnation. His closest advisors formed two factions, setting the framework for the future First Party System. Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton had bold plans to establish the national credit and build a financially powerful nation, and formed the basis of the Federalist Party. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, founder of the Jeffersonian Republicans, strenuously opposed Hamilton's agenda, but Washington favored Hamilton over Jefferson.

The Residence Act of 1790, which Washington signed, authorized the President to select the specific location of the permanent seat of the government, which would be located along the Potomac River. The Act authorized the President to appoint three commissioners to survey and acquire property for this seat. Washington personally oversaw this effortthroughout his term in office. In 1791, the commissioners named the permanent seat of government "The City of Washington in the Territory of Columbia" to honor Washington. In 1800, the Territory of Columbia became the District of Columbia when the federal government moved to the site according to the provisions of the Residence Act.[45][46]

In 1791, Congress imposed an excise on distilled spirits, which led to protests in frontier districts, especially Pennsylvania. By 1794, after Washington ordered the protesters to appear in U.S. district court, the protests turned into full-scale riots known as the Whiskey Rebellion. The federal army was too small to be used, so Washington invoked theMilitia Act of 1792 to summon the militias of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and several other states. The governors sent the troops and Washington took command, marching into the rebellious districts.[47] There was no fighting, but Washington's forceful action proved the new government could protect itself. It also was one of only two times that a sitting President would personally command the military in the field. These events marked the first time under the new constitution that the federal government used strong military force to exert authority over the states and citizens.

Foreign affairs

In 1793, the revolutionary government of France sent diplomat Edmond-Charles Genêt, called "Citizen Genêt," to America. Genêt issued letters of marque and reprisal to American ships so they could capture British merchant ships. He attempted to turn popular sentiment towards American involvement in the French war against Britain by creating a network of Democratic-Republican Societies in major cities. Washington rejected this interference in domestic affairs, demanded the French government recall Genêt, and denounced his societies.

Hamilton and Washington designed the Jay Treaty to normalize trade relations with Britain, remove them from western forts, and resolve financial debts left over from the Revolution. John Jay negotiated and signed the treaty on November 19, 1794. The Jeffersonians supported France and strongly attacked the treaty. Washington and Hamilton, however, mobilized public opinion and won ratification by the Senate by emphasizing Washington's support. The British agreed to depart their forts around the Great Lakes, the Canadian-U.S. boundary was adjusted, numerous pre-Revolutionary debts were liquidated, and the British opened their West Indies colonies to American trade. Most importantly, the treaty delayed war with Britain and instead brought a decade of prosperous trade with that country. This angered the French and became a central issue in political debates.

Farewell Address

Washington's Farewell Address (issued as a public letter in 1796) was one of the most influential statements of American political values.[48] Drafted primarily by Washington himself, with help from Hamilton, it gives advice on the necessity and importance of national union, the value of the Constitution and the rule of law, the evils of political parties, and the proper virtues of a republican people. While he declined suggested versions[49] that would have included statements that morality required a "divinely authoritative religion," he called morality "a necessary spring of popular government." He said, "Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle."[50]

Washington's public political address warned against foreign influence in domestic affairs and American meddling in European affairs. He warned against bitter partisanship in domestic politics and called for men to move beyond partisanship and serve the common good. He warned against 'permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world',[51]saying the United States must concentrate primarily on American interests. He counseled friendship and commerce with all nations, but warned against involvement in European wars and entering into long-term "entangling" alliances. The address quickly set American values regarding religion and foreign affairs.

Retirement and death

After retiring from the presidency in March 1797, Washington returned to Mount Vernon with a profound sense of relief. He devoted much time to farming.

On July 4, 1798, Washington was commissioned by President John Adams to be Lieutenant General and Commander-in-chief of the armies raised or to be raised for service in a prospective war with France. He served as the senior officer of the United States Army between July 13, 1798, and December 14, 1799. He participated in the planning for a Provisional Army to meet any emergency that might arise, but did not take the field.[10][52]

On December 12, 1799, Washington spent several hours inspecting his farms on horseback, in snow and later hail and freezing rain. He sat down to dine that evening without changing his wet clothes. The next morning, he awoke with a bad cold, fever, and a throat infection called quinsy that turned into acute laryngitis and pneumonia. Washington died on the evening of December 14, 1799, at his home aged 67, while attended by Dr. James Craik, one of his closest friends, Dr. Gustavus Richard Brown, Dr. Elisha C. Dick, andTobias Lear V, Washington's personal secretary. Lear would record the account in his journal, writing that Washington's last words were "'Tis well." Modern doctors believe that Washington died largely because of his treatment, which included calomel and bloodletting, resulting in a combination of shock from the loss of five pints of blood, as well asasphyxia and dehydration.[53]

Throughout the world men and women were saddened by Washington's death. Napoleon ordered ten days of mourning throughout France and in the United States thousands wore mourning clothes for months.[52][54] To protect their privacy, Martha Washington burned the correspondence between her husband and herself following his death. Only three letters between the couple have survived.

Washington's interment and new tomb

On December 18, 1799, a funeral was held at Mount Vernon, and Washington was interred in a tomb on the estate.[55]

Congress passed a joint resolution to construct a marble monument in the United States Capitol for his body, supported by Martha. In December 1800, the United States House passed an appropriations bill for $200,000 to build the mausoleum, which was to be a pyramid that had a base 100 feet (30 m) square. Southern opposition to the plan defeated the measure because they felt it was best to have his body remain at Mount Vernon.[56]

In 1831, for the cenntenial of his birth, a new tomb was constructed to receive his remains. Also in that year, an attempt was made to steal the body of Washington, but proved to be unsuccessful.[57] Despite this, a joint Congressional committee in early 1832 debated the removal of Washington's body from Mount Vernon to a crypt in the Capitol, built byCharles Bullfinch in the 1820s. Yet again, Southern opposition proved to be very intense, antagonized by a ever-growing rift between North and South. Congressman Wiley Thompson of Georgia expressed the fear of Southerners when he said "Remove the remains of our venerated Washington from their association with the remains of his consort and his ancestors, from Mount Vernon and from his native State, and deposit them in this capitol, and then let a severance of the Union occur, and behold the remains of Washington on a shore foreign to his native soil."[58]

On February 16, 1832, John Augustine Washington, brother of George and resident of Mount Vernon, strongly refused to allow anyone to remove the body of George Washington from the estate.[59] This ended any talk of the movement of his remains, and he was moved to the new tomb that was constructed there on October 7, 1837, presented by John Struthers of Philadelphia. After the ceremony, members of the family gathered together, and the key to his tomb was thrown into the Potomac.

Administration, Cabinet and Supreme Court appointments

The Washington CabinetOfficeNameTermPresidentGeorge Washington1789–1797Vice PresidentJohn Adams1789–1797Secretary of StateThomas Jefferson1790–1793

 

Edmund Randolph1794–1795Timothy Pickering1795–1797Secretary of TreasuryAlexander Hamilton1789–1795Oliver Wolcott, Jr.1795–1797Secretary of WarHenry Knox1789–1794

Timothy Pickering1794–1795James McHenry1796–1797Attorney GeneralEdmund Randolph1789–1794William Bradford1794–1795Charles Lee1795–1797

upreme Court Appointments by President George Washington

Supreme Court Appointments by President George Washington
Position Name Term

Chief Justice John Jay 1789–1795 (resigned)
John Rutledge 1795–1796 (rejected)
William Cushing 1796 (declined)
Oliver Ellsworth 1796–1800 (resigned)

Associate Justice James Wilson 1789–1798
William Cushing 1789–1810
John Blair 1789–1795
Robert H. Harrison 1789 (declined)

John Rutledge 1789–1791
James Iredell 1790–1799
Thomas Johnson 1792–1793
William Paterson 1793–1806
Samuel Chase 1796–1811

States joining the Union under Washington's Presidency

 

Original states: North Carolina - 1789 Rhode Island - 1790
New states: Vermont - 1791 Kentucky - 1792 Tennessee - 1796

  Legacy

Representative Henry Lee, a Revolutionary War comrade and father of the Civil War general Robert E. Lee, famously eulogized Washington as follows:

First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen, he was second to none in humble and enduring scenes of private life. Pious, just, humane, temperate, and sincere; uniform, dignified, and commanding; his example was as edifying to all around him as were the effects of that example lasting...Correct throughout, vice shuddered in his presence and virtue always felt his fostering hand. The purity of his private character gave effulgence to his public virtues...Such was the man for whom our nation mourns.[9]

Lee's words set the standard by which Washington's overwhelming reputation was impressed upon the American memory. Washington set many precedents for the national government and the presidency in particular.

As early as 1778, Washington was lauded as the "Father of His Country".[60]

During the United States Bicentennial year, George Washington was posthumously appointed to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States by the congressional joint resolution Public Law 94-479 of January 19, 1976, approved by President Gerald Ford on October 11, 1976, and formalized in Department of the Army Order 31-3 of March 13, 1978 with an effective appointment date of July 4, 1976.[10] This restored Washington's position as the highest ranking military officer in U.S. history.

Monuments and memorials

Today, Washington's face and image are often used as national symbols of the United States, along with the icons such as the flag and great seal. Perhaps the most prominent commemoration of his legacy is the use of his image on the one-dollar bill and the quarter-dollar coin. Washington, together with Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, andAbraham Lincoln, is depicted in stone at the Mount Rushmore Memorial. The Washington Monument, one of the most well-known American landmarks, was built in his honor. TheGeorge Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria, Virginia, constructed entirely with voluntary contributions from members of the Masonic Fraternity, was also built in his honor.[61]

Many things have been named in honor of Washington. Washington's name became that of the nation's capital, Washington, D.C., only one of two capitals across the globe to be named after an American president (the other is Monrovia, Liberia). The state of Washington is the only state to be named after an American (Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia are all named in honor of British monarchs). George Washington University and Washington University in St. Louis were named for him, as was Washington and Lee University (once Washington Academy), which was renamed due to Washington’s large endowment in 1796. Countless American cities and towns feature a Washington Street among their thoroughfares.

The Confederate Seal prominently featured George Washington on horseback, in the same position as a statue of him in Richmond, Virginia.

There is even a statue of Washington in London, the capital of his enemies. Based on Jean Antoine Houdon's marble statue in Richmond, Virginia, it was given to the British Nation in 1921 by the Commonwealth of Virginia. It stands in front of the National Gallery at Trafalgar Square. It has been claimed that the soil on which the statue stands also comes from America since Washington is reported to have said that he would never stand on English ground.[62][63]

Washington and slavery

The slave trade continued throughout George Washington’s life. On the death of his father in 1743, the 11-year-old inherited 10 slaves. At the time of his marriage to Martha Custis in 1759, he personally owned at least 36 (and the widow's third of her first husband's estate brought at least 85 "dower slaves" to Mount Vernon). Using his wife's great wealth he bought land, tripling the size of the plantation, and additional slaves to farm it. By 1774 he paid taxes on 135 slaves (this does not include the "dowers"). The last record of a slave purchase by him was in 1772, although he later received some slaves in repayment of debts.[64]

Before the American Revolution, Washington expressed no moral reservations about slavery, but in 1786, Washington wrote to Robert Morris, saying, "There is not a man living who wishes more sincerely than I do, to see a plan adopted for the abolition of slavery."[65] In 1778 he wrote to his manager at Mount Vernon that he wished "to get quit of negroes." Maintaining a large, and increasingly elderly, slave population at Mount Vernon was not economically profitable. Washington could not legally sell the "dower slaves," however, and because these slaves had long intermarried with his own slaves, he could not sell his slaves without breaking up families.[66]

As president, Washington brought seven slaves to New York City in 1789 to work in the first presidential household– Oney Judge, Moll, Giles, Paris, Austin, Christopher Sheels, and William Lee. Following the transfer of the national capital to Philadelphia in 1790, he brought nine slaves to work in the President's House Oney Judge, Moll, Giles, Paris, Austin, Christopher Sheels, Hercules, Richmond, and Joe (Richardson).[67] Oney Judge and Hercules escaped to freedom from Philadelphia, and there were foiled escape attempts from Mount Vernon by Richmond and Christopher Sheels.

Pennsylvania had begun an abolition of slavery in 1780, and prohibited nonresidents from holding slaves in the state longer than six months. If held beyond that period, the state's Gradual Abolition Law[68] gave those slaves the power to free themselves. Washington argued (privately) that his presence in Pennsylvania was solely a consequence of Philadelphia's being the temporary seat of the federal government, and that the state law should not apply to him. On the advice of his attorney general, Edmund Randolph, he systematically rotated the President's House slaves in and out of the state to prevent their establishing a six-month continuous residency. This rotation was itself a violation of the Pennsylvania law, but the President's actions were not challenged.

The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793[69] established the legal mechanism by which a slaveholder could recover his property, a right guaranteed by the Fugitive Slave Clause of the U.S. Constitution (Article IV, Section 2). Passed overwhelmingly by Congress and signed into law by Washington, the 1793 Act made assisting an escaped slave a federal crime, overruled all state and local laws giving escaped slaves sanctuary, and allowed slavecatchers into every U.S. state and territory.

Washington was the only prominent, slaveholding Founding Father who succeeded in emancipating his slaves. His actions were influenced by his close relationship with Marquis de La Fayette. He did not free his slaves in his lifetime, however, but included a provision in his will to free his slaves upon the death of his wife. At the time of his death, there were 317 slaves at Mount Vernon– 123 owned by Washington, 154 "dower slaves," and 40 rented from a neighbor.[70]

Martha Washington bequeathed the one slave she owned outright– Elisha– to her grandson George Washington Parke Custis. Following her death in 1802, the dower slaves were inherited by her grandchildren.

It has been argued that Washington did not speak out publicly against slavery, because he did not wish to create a split in the new republic, with an issue that was sensitive and divisive.[71] Even if Washington had opposed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, his veto probably would have been overridden. (The Senate vote was not recorded, but the House passed it overwhelmingly, 47 to 8.)[72]


Religious beliefs

Washington was baptized into the Church of England.[73][74] In 1765, when the Church of England was still the state religion,[75] he served on the vestry (lay council) for his local church. Throughout his life, he spoke of the value of righteousness, and of seeking and offering thanks for the "blessings of Heaven."

In a letter to George Mason in 1785, Washington wrote that he was not among those alarmed by a bill "making people pay towards the support of that [religion] which they profess," but felt that it was "impolitic" to pass such a measure, and wished it had never been proposed, believing that it would disturb public tranquility.[76]

His adopted daughter, Nelly Custis Lewis, stated: "I have heard her [Nelly's mother, Eleanor Calvert Custis, who resided in Mount Vernon for two years] say that General Washington always received the sacrament with my grandmother [Martha Washington] before the revolution."[77] After the revolution, Washington frequently accompanied his wife to Christian church services; however, there is no record of his ever taking communion, and he would regularly leave services before communion—with the other non-communicants (as was the custom of the day), until, after being admonished by a rector, he ceased attending at all on communion Sundays.[78][79] Prior to communion, believers are admonished to take stock of their spiritual lives and not to participate in the ceremony unless he finds himself in the will of God.[80][81] Historians and biographers continue to debate the degree to which he can be counted as a Christian, and the degree to which he was a deist.

Upon the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 at a celebration in Newburg, New York, Washington called upon one of his Chaplains, John Gano to offer the prayer of thanksgiving. Washington also requested that Gano baptize him as recorded in The Kentucky State Historical Society register. Virginia Baptists, who were witnesses, state that the baptism was in 1780 or 1781.[82]

He was an early supporter of religious toleration and freedom of religion. In 1775, he ordered that his troops not show anti-Catholic sentiments by burning the pope in effigy on Guy Fawkes Night. When hiring workmen for Mount Vernon, he wrote to his agent, "If they be good workmen, they may be from Asia, Africa, or Europe; they may be Mohammedans, Jews, or Christians of any sect, or they may be Atheists."[80][83] In 1790, he wrote a response to a letter from the Touro Synagogue, in which he said that as long as people remain good citizens, they don't have to fear persecution for having differing beliefs/faiths. This was a relief to the Jewish community of the United States, since the Jews had been either expelled or discriminated against in many European countries.

...the Government of the United States ... gives to bigotry no sanction, to persecution no assistance. ... May the children of the Stock of Abraham, who dwell in this land, continue to merit and enjoy the good will of the other Inhabitants; while every one shall sit in safety under his own vine and figtree, and there shall be none to make him afraid. May the father of all mercies scatter light and not darkness in our paths, and make us all in our several vocations useful here, and in his own due time and way everlastingly happy.

The United States Bill of Rights was in the process of being ratified at the time.

Personal life

Along with Martha's biological family noted above, George Washington had a close relationship with his nephew and heir Bushrod Washington, son of George's younger brotherJohn Augustine Washington. Bushrod became an Associate Justice on the US Supreme Court after George's death.

As a young man, Washington had red hair.[84][85] A popular myth is that he wore a wig, as was the fashion among some at the time. Washington did not wear a wig; instead he powdered his hair,[86] as represented in several portraits, including the well-known unfinished Gilbert Stuart depiction.[87]

Washington suffered from problems with his teeth throughout his life. He lost his first adult tooth when he was twenty-two and had only one left by the time he became President.[88] John Adams claims he lost them because he used them to crack Brazil nuts but modern historians suggest the mercury oxide which he was given to treat illnesses such as smallpox and malaria probably contributed to the loss.[88] He had several sets of false teeth made, four of them by a dentist named John Greenwood.[88] Contrary to popular belief, none of the sets were made from wood. The set made when he became President was carved from hippopotamus and elephant ivory, held together with gold springs.[88][89] The hippo ivory was used for the plate, into which real human teeth and bits of horses' and donkeys' teeth were inserted.[88] Dental problems left Washington in constant pain, for which he took laudanum. This distress may be apparent in many of the portraits painted while he was still in office, including the one still used on the $1 bill.[88]

One of the most enduring myths about George Washington involves his chopping down his father's cherry tree and, when asked about it, using the famous line "I cannot tell a lie, I did it with my little hatchet." There is no evidence that this ever occurred.[90] It, along with the story of Washington throwing a silver dollar across the Potomac River, was part of a book of mythic stories written by Mason Weems that made Washington a legendary figure beyond his wartime and presidential achievements

See Also:

Cultural depictions of George Washington

Back of statue facing a city building whose facade is Greek columns covered by a huge U.S. flag
The statue of Washington outsideFederal Hall in New York City, looking on Wall Street
Profile of stone face jutting out from a mountainside. Three workers clamber over it, each about the height of the face's upper lip.
Construction on the George Washington portrait at Mount Rushmore, c. 1932. 
Shiny silver coin with profile of Washington bust. He faces left regally and wears a colonial-style queue in his hair. "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" is at top, "QUARTER DOLLAR" at bottom, "LIBERTY" at left, and "IN GOD WE TRUST" above "S" at right. Just below the bust is "JF uc" in tiny letters.
Washington is commemorated on the quarter
Gold coin with bust of Washington facing slightly left of but looking sternly straight at the viewer. "GEORGE WASHINGTON" is above, "1st PRESIDENT 1789–1797" below, and "JFM" in tiny letters at the bust's base.
Washington is also commemorated on some dollar coins.

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External links



President-Elect http://www.welt.de/english-news/article2704430/Obama-meets-with-President-Bush-at-White-House.html

Obama meets with President Bush at White House

11.November 2008, 08:58 U.S. President-elect Barack Obama visited the White House on Monday for his first post-election meeting with President George W. Bush, a strikingly symbolic moment in the transition of power. Obama, who will take office on January 20, urged Bush to take immediate action in light of the financial crisis. US President George W. Bush (left) and President-elect Barack Obama meet in the Oval Office of the White House on November 10, 2008. Bush and Obama held private talks that likely included the faltering economy, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and terrorist threats.


Current president George W. Bush and first lady Laura greeted newly elected president Barack Obama and his wife, Michelle, with smiles and handshakes, even as Obama’s advisers reviewed some of Bush’s executive orders with an eye to reversing them after he is sworn in on Jan. 20. The two men met privately in the Oval Office for over an hour in talks thought to have encompassed the global financial crisis, the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and other daunting challenges the Republican president will bequeath to his Democratic successor. It was their first face-to-face encounter following Obama’s resounding victory over Republican John McCain in Tuesday’s election, which will make him the United States’ first black president.
Obama, 47, had repeatedly attacked Bush’s "failed policies“ on the campaign trail, and the Illinois senator swept to power on a theme of change -- specifically, change from the unpopular president’s approach to economics and foreign affairs. Top congressional Democrats have asked the Bush administration to consider aid to the automakers through the financial bailout initiative that has so far covered banks and other financial services companies, and Obama urged Bush to act quickly at their meeting, according to The New York Times. Citing people familiar with their discussion, the Times said Bush indicated he might support some aid for the auto industry and a broader economic stimulus package if Obama dropped his opposition to a free-trade pact with Colombia. Obama’s aides say after taking office he will likely move quickly to roll back Bush’s executive orders that limit stem cell research and expand oil and gas drilling in some areas. But members of Obama’s team cautioned on Monday he had not yet decided whether to reverse executive orders. There was no outward sign of tension, however, when the Obamas stepped from their limousine at the south portico of the White House. Earlier, they had been cheered by crowds of onlookers as their motorcade sped through the capital. "Good morning,“ Laura Bush chirped, though it was well past noon. Obama put his hand on Bush’s back cordially as the two couples entered the mansion. The leaders then strolled down the colonnade side by side, chatting. Obama was the more animated of the two, gesturing with both hands. He had never set foot in the Oval Office before and was ushered in ahead of Bush. While their husbands met, the first lady gave Michelle Obama a tour of the White House living quarters, which will soon be her family’s new home and where daughters Malia, 10, and Sasha, 7, will be running the halls.

SENSE OF URGENCY

At the end of a two-hour visit, Bush and Obama had nothing to say to reporters and both camps were mostly tight-lipped. White House spokeswoman Dana Perino would only say that domestic and international issues were discussed and that Bush "again pledged a smooth transition.“ Obama spokeswoman Stephanie Cutter said the leaders agreed on the need to cooperate in the changeover "in light of the nation’s many critical economic and security challenges.“ Later, as Obama’s plane sat on the airport tarmac in Washington before taking off for Chicago, journalists onboard overheard snippets of a cell phone conversation the president-elect had with an unknown party. "I am not going to be spending too much time in Washington over the next several weeks,“ Obama said. Newly elected presidents traditionally visit the White House between election and inauguration but usually wait longer than Obama did. He came calling at Bush’s invitation after only six days, underscoring a sense of urgency in the transition. It will be the first wartime transfer of power in four decades and comes amid economic upheaval at home and abroad. Financial markets, struggling in a global credit crunch, are awaiting news of Obama’s appointments for key jobs such as Treasury secretary, but a spokeswoman for Obama said on Monday he would not make any Cabinet announcements this week. Obama said in his first post-election news conference on Friday he would not be rushed into making hasty decisions. Underscoring Obama’s assertion he will not act as a shadow president during the transition, an aide confirmed what the White House had been saying -- that he will not attend a global financial summit in Washington on Friday and Saturday. Bush, whose low approval ratings helped propel Obama to victory, has said he will do all he can to help in the changeover. Though visits by incoming presidents to the White House before taking office are a ritual dating back decades, there was little denying Obama’s tour carried special significance. The son of a black father from Kenya and white mother from Kansas, Obama made history by winning the presidency, an achievement seen as a breakthrough in U.S. race relations.

Michelle Obama Michelle Obama The new First Lady of the U.S.A.
Obama the Winner Obama wins a historic presidential election
Barack Obama President Obama Obama's victory speech in Chicago
US-Präsidentenwahl - Mount Rushmore The 44 US Presidents From Washington to Obama
White House Pets The beloved pets of past presidential families
John McCain Why McCain Lost McCain lost due to gaffes, Obama

Previous presidents of the United States of America


George Washington (February 22, 1732 - December 14, 1799) served as the first President of the United States of America (1789-1797), and led the Continental Army to victory over the Kingdom of Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783).


John Adams (October 30, 1735 - July 4, 1826). He was elected second President of the United States (1797-1801) after serving as America's first Vice President (1789-1797) for two terms. He is regarded as one of the most influential Founding Fathers of the United States.


Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 - July 4, 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801-1809), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of republicanism in the United States.


James Madison, Jr.(March 16, 1751 - June 28, 1836), the fourth President of the United States (1809-1817), and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

 James Monroe (April 28, 1758 - July 4, 1831) was the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825). His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state.

John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 - February 23, 1848) was an American diplomat and politician who served as the sixth President of the United States from March 4, 1825 to March 4, 1829. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties.




Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 - June 8, 1845) was the seventh President of the United States (1829-1837). He was military governor of Florida (1821), commander of the American forces at the Battle of New Orleans (1815), and eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy.


Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 - July 24, 1862) was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. He was a key organizer of the Democratic Party, a dominant figure in the Second Party System, and the first president who was not of British or Irish descent.



William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 - April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. The oldest President elected until Ronald Reagan in 1980, Harrison had served 30 days in office, still the shortest tenure in United States presidential history, before his death in April 1841.


John Tyler, Jr. (March 29, 1790 - January 18, 1862) was the tenth President of the United States (1841-1845), and the first ever to obtain that office via succession. He was also the first and one of only two (along with Andrew Johnson) to have no party affiliation during part of his term.


James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795-June 15, 1849) was the eleventh President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849. A Democrat, Polk served as Speaker of the House (1835-1839) and Governor of Tennessee (1839-1841) prior to becoming president.




Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 - July 9, 1850) was an American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States. Known as "Old Rough and Ready", Taylor had a 40-year military career in the U.S. Army.




Millard Fillmore (January 7, 1800 - March 8, 1874) was the thirteenth President of the United States, serving from 1850 until 1853, and the last member of the Whig Party to hold that office.


Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 - October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. To date, he is the only president from New Hampshire. Pierce was a Democrat and a "doughface" (a Northerner with Southern sympathies) who served in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate.


James Buchanan, Jr. (April 23, 1791 - June 1, 1868) was the fifteenth President of the United States (1857-1861). To date he is the only President from Pennsylvania, and is the only never to marry.


Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 - April 15, 1865), the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through the American Civil War, only to be assassinated as the war was coming to an end. Before becoming the first Republican elected to the Presidency, Lincoln was a lawyer, an Illinois state legislator, a member of the United States House of Representatives.


Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 - July 31, 1875) was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865-69), succeeding to the Presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. He was one of only two U.S. Presidents to be impeached.


Ulysses S. Grant, born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 - July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.


Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 - January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877-1881). Hayes was elected President by one electoral vote after the highly disputed election of 1876.


James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 - September 19, 1881) was the twentieth President of the United States. His assassination, six months after he assumed the Presidency, means that his tenure is the second shortest in United States history.


Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 - November 18, 1886) served as the twenty-first President of the United States. Arthur was a member of the Republican Party and worked as a lawyer before becoming the twentieth vice president under James Garfield.


Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 - June 24, 1908) was both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. Cleveland is the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and thus is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents.


Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 - March 13, 1901) was the twenty-third President of the United States, serving one term from 1889 to 1893.


Stephen Grover Cleveland was the only Democrat elected to the Presidency in the era of Republican political domination that lasted from 1860 to 1912.
Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 - June 24, 1908) was both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. Cleveland is the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and thus is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents.

 
William McKinley, Jr. (January 29, 1843 - September 14, 1901) was the twenty-fifth President of the United States, and the last veteran of the American Civil War to be elected.


Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 - January 6, 1919), was the twenty-sixth President of the United States. A leader of the Republican Party and of the Progressive Party, he was a Governor of New York and a professional historian, naturalist, explorer, hunter, author, and soldier.


William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 - March 8, 1930), the twenty-seventh President of the United States, the tenth Chief Justice of the United States, a leader of the progressive conservative wing of the Republican Party in the early 20th century, a pioneer in international arbitration.


Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 - February 3, 1924) was the twenty-eighth President of the United States. A leading intellectual of the Progressive Era, he served as President of Princeton University and then became the Governor of New Jersey in 1910.


Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 - August 2, 1923) was the twenty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1921 until his death from a heart attack, aged 57, in 1923. A Republican from Ohio, Harding was an influential newspaper publisher.


John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. (July 4, 1872 - January 5, 1933) was the thirtieth President of the United States (1923-1929). A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state. His actions during the Boston Police Strike of 1919 thrust him into the national spotlight.

Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 - October 20, 1964) was the thirty-first President of the United States (1929-1933). Besides his political career, Hoover was a professional mining engineer and author.


Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 - April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was the thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945 and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. Franklin and Theodore Roosevelt were related but only distantly.


Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 - December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945-1953). As the thirty-fourth vice president, he succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt, who died less than three months after he began his fourth term.


Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 - March 28, 1969) was the thirty-fourth President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general in the United States Army. During the Second World War, he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful i




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This is a list of notable Freemasons. Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation which exists in a number of forms worldwide. Throughout history some members of the fraternity have made no secret of their involvement, while others have not made their membership public. In some cases, membership can only be proven by searching through the fraternity's records. Such records are most often kept at the individual Lodge level, and may be lost due to fire, flood, deterioration, or simple carelessness. Grand Lodge governance may have shifted or reorganized, resulting in further loss of records on the member or the name, number, location or even existence of the Lodge in question. In areas of the world where Masonry has been suppressed by governments, records of entire Grand Lodges have been destroyed. Because of this, masonic membership can sometimes be difficult to verify.

Standards of "proof" for those on this list may vary widely; some figures with no verified Lodge affiliation are claimed as Masons if reliable sources give anecdotal evidence suggesting they were familiar with the "secret" signs and passes, but other figures are rejected over technical questions of irregularity in the Lodge that initiated them. Where available, specific Lodge membership information is provided; where serious questions of verification have been noted by other sources, this is indicated as well.phy/esoterica/reuss_t/reuss_t.html GL of BC&Y article on Reuss

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  • Burl Ives, American actor and singer,[26] Magnolia (now Magnolia-La Cumbre) Lodge No. 242, California

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

  • Manuel L. Quezon, First president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under U.S. occupation rule in the early period of the 20th century. Raised March 17, 1908 at Sinukuan Lodge No. 272 (renamed Sinukuan Lodge No. 16). first Filipino Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the Philippine Islands that was established in 1917.[188]

R

S

T

  • Alphonso Taft, U.S. Attorney General and Secretary of War. Kilwinning Lodge No. 356, Ohio
  • William Howard Taft, U.S. President. Made a "Mason at sight" inside Kilwinning Lodge No. 356, Ohio, February 18, 1909 Kilwinning Lodge No. 356, Ohio[30][34]
  • Mehmed Talat, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire. Initiated into Macedonia Risorta Lodge, Thessaloniki,1903. First Grand Master of Ottoman Grand Orient (1909-1910)[81]