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"A LIE BELIEVED BY EVERYBODY IS NOT THE TRUTH..."  
read below to find out who said this and why

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"A LIE BELIEVED BY EVERYBODY IS NOT THE TRUTH..."   read below to find out who said this and why
"Can somone tell me what is the the connection between illuminati, freemasonry, and the jesuits , because im little confused who controlls who."..Reader
"That's a big question, Mr. X. In my opinion, the connection is CONTROL. Not the organization Maxwell Smart works for, but the need to control other people's thoughts and actions.
In this world, it is most easily accomplished with lies, which all of the organizations you mention use with great effect. Most of the big lies that the modern world suffers under, were spread thick by members of the Illuminati, which is not as organized as some believe, but a loose coalition of like minded people. Universities, Newspapers and mass media have shaped our view of the world, and in most cases, can be traced to the influence of people who want to control the thoughts of others. this is the battleground of the Illuminati.
Freemasonry,as it is understood by the masses, is a recruiting tool of the Illuminati. Masons who display the right thinking are advanced to a high enough rank in the organization to where they are informed of the true goals, and the "god" they worship, Lucifer. Until the 31st degree, they are lied to about these, and many other things. "Morals and Dogma", by Albert Pike, is a must read for anyone serious about learning of the true motives and methods of freemasonry.
The Jesuits, Society Of Jesus, is the military arm of the Roman Catholic Church. They were formed to force "heretics", which are any who don't believe the Catholic doctrine and worship the pope as God's representative on Earth, to enter the fold, or die. They are a perfect example of a "terrorist organization". They use lies, stealth, secrecy, assassination and bribery to achieve their goals.
One thing these organizations have in common, is a false front that looks like a humanitarian, caring group with only the "good" of mankind as their goal. Beware of any person or group that wants to force "good" on anyone else!! Will


http://letsrollforums.com/connection-between-illuminati-freemasonry-t18242.html

Julian Assange faces assassination risk: WikiLeaks spokesman
                                                                           Assange Accuser Worked with US-Funded, CIA-Tied Anti-Castro Group

December 5, 2010 
by legitgov

Ah, then came the dawn. Assange Accuser Worked with US-Funded, CIA-Tied Anti-Castro Group By Kirk James Murphy, M.D. 04 Dec 2010 [As reported by Israel Shamir and Paul Bennett in Counterpunch in September]

Julian Assange’s chief accuser in Sweden has a significant history of work with anti-Castro groups, at least one of which is US funded and openly supported by a former CIA agent convicted in the mass murder of seventy three Cubans on an airliner he [Luis Posada Carilles] was involved in blowing up... Who is Julian Assange’s chief accuser in Sweden? She’s a gender equity officer at Uppsula University -- who chose to associate with a US funded group openly supported by a convicted terrorist and mass murderer.  She just happens to have her work published by a very well funded group connected with Union Liberal Cubana -- whose leader, Carlos Alberto Montaner, in turn just happened to pop up on right wing Colombian TV a few hours after the right-wing coup in Honduras.

http://www.legitgov.org/Assange-Accuser-Worked-US-Funded-CIA-Tied-Anti-Castro-Group


Julian Assange is Controlled Opposition Under Mind Control
http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=194294.0

NSA nexus: former Google security boss Ben Laurie on Wikileaks' advisory board!!
http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=194274.0

Assange literally in bed with CIA asset/operative: his Swedish accuser is CIA op
http://forum.prisonplanet.com/index.php?topic=194293.0








 "A LIE BELIEVED BY EVERYBODY IS NOT THE TRUTH..."   read below to find out who said this and why
"Can somone tell me what is the the connection between illuminati, freemasonry, and the jesuits , because im little confused who controlls who."..Reader
"That's a big question, Mr. X. In my opinion, the connection is CONTROL. Not the organization Maxwell Smart works for, but the need to control other people's thoughts and actions.
In this world, it is most easily accomplished with lies, which all of the organizations you mention use with great effect. Most of the big lies that the modern world suffers under, were spread thick by members of the Illuminati, which is not as organized as some believe, but a loose coalition of like minded people. Universities, Newspapers and mass media have shaped our view of the world, and in most cases, can be traced to the influence of people who want to control the thoughts of others. this is the battleground of the Illuminati.
Freemasonry,as it is understood by the masses, is a recruiting tool of the Illuminati. Masons who display the right thinking are advanced to a high enough rank in the organization to where they are informed of the true goals, and the "god" they worship, Lucifer. Until the 31st degree, they are lied to about these, and many other things. "Morals and Dogma", by Albert Pike, is a must read for anyone serious about learning of the true motives and methods of freemasonry.
The Jesuits, Society Of Jesus, is the military arm of the Roman Catholic Church. They were formed to force "heretics", which are any who don't believe the Catholic doctrine and worship the pope as God's representative on Earth, to enter the fold, or die. They are a perfect example of a "terrorist organization". They use lies, stealth, secrecy, assassination and bribery to achieve their goals.
One thing these organizations have in common, is a false front that looks like a humanitarian, caring group with only the "good" of mankind as their goal. Beware of any person or group that wants to force "good" on anyone else!! Will


That's a big question, Mr. X. In my opinion, the connection is CONTROL. Not the organization Maxwell Smart works for, but the need to control other people's thoughts and actions.
In this world, it is most easily accomplished with lies, which all of the organizations you mention use with great effect. Most of the big lies that the modern world suffers under, were spread thick by members of the Illuminati, which is not as organized as some believe, but a loose coalition of like minded people. Universities, Newspapers and mass media have shaped our view of the world, and in most cases, can be traced to the influence of people who want to control the thoughts of others. this is the battleground of the Illuminati.
Freemasonry,as it is understood by the masses, is a recruiting tool of the Illuminati. Masons who display the right thinking are advanced to a high enough rank in the organization to where they are informed of the true goals, and the "god" they worship, Lucifer. Until the 31st degree, they are lied to about these, and many other things. "Morals and Dogma", by Albert Pike, is a must read for anyone serious about learning of the true motives and methods of freemasonry.
The Jesuits, Society Of Jesus, is the military arm of the Roman Catholic Church. They were formed to force "heretics", which are any who don't believe the Catholic doctrine and worship the pope as God's representative on Earth, to enter the fold, or die. They are a perfect example of a "terrorist organization". They use lies, stealth, secrecy, assassination and bribery to achieve their goals.
One thing these organizations have in common, is a false front that looks like a humanitarian, caring group with only the "good" of mankind as their goal. Beware of any person or group that wants to force "good" on anyone else!! Will
__________________
A LIE BELIEVED BY EVERYBODY IS NOT THE TRUTH

I agree totally with Trueblue,in the end,the Vatican runs everything.
__________________
John 16:13 But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth. He will not speak on his own; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come.

"Lest Satan should get an advantage over us: for we are not ignorant of his devices"

- 2 Corinthians 2:11http://i.ixnp.com/images/v6.38/t.gif


http://letsrollforums.com/connection-between-illuminati-freemasonry-t18242.html

It is well-known that the Illuminati controls Freemasonry from the inside. It infiltrated it hundreds of years ago and became "a secret society within a secret society" as Robert Anton Wilson said.

That links the Illuminati to Freemasonry as Freemasonry's controller. The Illuminati was started in 1776 as a Jesuit front by Adam Weishaupt, who was trained by Jesuits all his life (School, High School, University). His father was a professor at a Jesuit university. He would later become a professor of Roman Catholic canon law at that very same Jesuit university.

He allegedly 'broke ties' with the Jesuits and started the Illuminati. This is a lie, though. Weishaupt never broke all ties with the Jesuit order. His Jesuit superiors ordered him to separate himself from the order so that he could set up a front organization that would appear to be entirely separate from the order.

This front organization, the Illuminati, would be used to infiltrate Freemasonry and take the blame for Rome's crimes (The Illuminati did it!). An example of this is the French Revolution. Almost every leader of the revolution was Jesuit-trained, but people instead looked at the story of Lanz, an Illuminati courier who was struck by lightning when he was carrying a plan for the Revolution.

The job of the Illuminati is to take the blame for Jesuit crimes.. therefore, it cannot be linked in any way to the Jesuits.. that's why Jesuit Adam Weishaupt was ordered to pretend to leave the order.

The Illuminati was used to infiltrate and control Freemasonry.

Irrefutable evidence that Adam Weishaupt never broke ties with Rome comes from the Church itself. They admit that he was reconciled with the Roman Catholic Church on his deathbed.

Further, I'm sure you know about Albert Pike, who was known as "Grand Supreme Pontiff" of Freemasonry. Pontiff means 'Pope'. So much for Freemasonry and Catholicism being enemies.
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      • Julian Assange faces assassination risk: WikiLeaks spokesman
        Reuters
        December 2, 2010

        http://www.dawn.com/2010/12/02/julian-assange-faces-assassination-risk-wikileaks-spokesman.html

        wikileaksspokesmanReut543 Julian Assange faces assassination risk: WikiLeaks spokesman

        WikiLeaks spokesman Kristinn Hrafnsson (C) listens to questions from the media during an event at the Frontline club in London, December 1. The disclosure of a trove of confidential US diplomatic cables by WikiLeaks is perfectly legal, the spokesman for the whistle-blowing website said on Wednesday. — Photo by Reuters

        LONDON: WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange is at risk of being assassinated over the release of secret US documents and will remain in hiding for his own security, the website’s spokesman said Wednesday.

        Spokesman Kristinn Hrafnsson said the Australian’s safety was at stake after US politicians called for him to face treason charges and an adviser to Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper reportedly said he should be killed.

        “We have had threats from governments and commentators, some of them totally preposterous, even calls for the assassination of Julian Assange,” Hrafnsson said during a debate at the Frontline Club in London.

        “He is justified in being concerned for his safety. When you have people calling, for example, for his assassination, it is best to keep a low profile,” he added.

        Hrafnsson said Assange’s whereabouts would remain secret. He is known to have recently spent time in Sweden and London and is the subject of an Interpol arrest request over a rape allegation in Sweden.

        He has faced calls from the United States for his arrest, with Mike Huckabee, a former Republican presidential hopeful, reportedly saying that those responsible for the leaks were guilty of treason and should face execution, CNN reported.

        Separately, Tom Flanagan, an advisor to Canada’s prime minister, said flippantly in a television interview that Assange “should be assassinated” and that US President Barack Obama “should put out a contract and maybe use a drone.”

        Hrafnsson, an Icelandic former journalist, defended Assange’s decision to remain in hiding and not to face up to the Swedish arrest warrant, saying the timing of the Interpol alert was “curious”.

        “He is in a secret location and working on the project with a group of our staff. It is necessary in the circumstances to keep his location secret,” Hrafnsson said.

        The spokesman also pointed to the fact that WikiLeaks was suffering repeated cyber attacks as evidence that it was being targeted.

        “We know the interest of the US government in bringing down WikiLeaks,” he said.

        US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton accused WikiLeaks on Monday of an “attack on the international community” by releasing the documents, but Hrafnsson insisted that WikiLeaks had done nothing illegal.

        “There has been a lot of talk about legal actions taken against Wikileaks and Julian, about how we have done something illegal, that we are criminals, but we have not seen any reference to how we are supposed to have broken the law,” he said.

        share save 120 16 Julian Assange faces assassination risk: WikiLeaks spokesman

        undefined
        Map of countries by the number of politicians, which have attended one or more conferences organized by the Bilderberg Group


        List of Bilderberg participants

        The following is a list of prominent persons who have attended one or more conferences organized by the Bilderberg Group. The list is currently organized by category. It is not a complete list and it includes both living and deceased people. Where known, the year(s) they attended are denoted in brackets.

        Royalty

        Politics

        United States

        Presidents

        Senators

        Governors

        United Kingdom

        Prime Ministers

        Belgium

        Netherlands

        France

        Portugal

        Finland

        Iceland

        Germany

        Poland

        Canada

        Sweden

        Norway

        • Siv Jensen (2009) - Seen in Alex Jones' Blueprint movie.

        EU Commissioners

        European Union Commissioners who have attended include:

        UN, WTO, NATO and other International Organizations

        Military

        Financial institutions

        Major corporations

        University, institute and other academic

        Media

        References

        1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Bilderberg Meeting of 1997 Assembles". PR Newswire. 13 June 1997.
        2. ^ Video showing DSK, Queen Beatrix and James Wolfensohn among others at Bilderberg 2000
        3. ^ a b c d Welcome to ActivePaper
        4. ^ a b "Obituary - Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands". The Times. December 3, 2004. "Bernhard’s visits abroad provided the background for an enterprise which interested him greatly, the Bilderberg conferences at which, from 1954 onwards, statesmen, businessmen and intellectuals from Europe and America had private discussions once or twice a year. The idea of the conferences originated with Dr Joseph H. Retinger as a counter to the anti-Americanism in Western Europe."
        5. ^ Jon Ronson (March 28, 2001). "Exposed: The Secret Club Of Powermongers Who Really Rule The World". The Mirror. "Prince Charles and Bill Clinton have been to sessions."
        6. ^ Jean Stead (April 28, 1986). "Prince Charles attends meeting on South Africa". The Guardian (London). "The 34th Bilderberg conference ended at Gleneagles Hotel, Perthshire, yesterday after a debate on the South African crisis attended by Prince Charles. He arrived for the economic debate on Saturday and stayed overnight at the hotel."
        7. ^ Mark Oliver (June 4, 2004). "The Bilderberg group". The Guardian.
        8. ^ a b "'High Priests Of Globalization' In Istanbul". Turkish Daily News. May 31, 2007. "The Turkish state minister and chief negotiator, Ali Babacan, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Administrator Kemal Dervis, the Association of Turkish Industrialists and Businessmen (Tusiad) Chairwoman Arzuhan Dogan Yalcindag, Koc Holding Executive Board President Mustafa Koc and the Bogazici University rector, Prof Dr Ayse Soysal, will attend the meeting on behalf of Turkey. Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, Queen Sofia of Spain, Crown Prince Philippe of Belgium, Greek National Economy and Finance Minister Yeoryios Alogoskoufis, former Prime Minister Francisco Pinto Balsemao of Portugal, former Foreign Minister Michel Barnier of France, Foreign Minister Carl Bildt of Sweden, Finance Minister Anders Borg of Sweden, Foreign Trade Minister Frank Heemskerk of the Netherlands, Finance Minister Jyrki Katainen of Finland, former US secretary of state, Henry Kissinger, Agriculture Minister Christine Lagarde of France, Justice Minister Michael McDowell of Ireland, International Monetary Fund (IMF) Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato, the EU commissioner for enlargement, Olli Rehn, and the US ambassador to Turkey, Ross Wilson, are among foreign guests of the meeting. Meanwhile, tight security measures were taken in and around the Ritz Carlton Hotel, the venue of the meeting."
        9. ^ "Duke Of Edinburgh In Como Talks". The Times. April 03, 1965. p. 7. "The Duke of Edinburgh took part today in the opening session of the Bilderberg meeting at the Villa d'Este on Lake Como."
        10. ^ "Court Circular". The Times. April 03, 1967. p. 12.
        11. ^ Official List of Participants for the 2009 Bilderberg Meeting
        12. ^ a b c "World Leaders Attended Secret Bilderberg Meeting, The Spotlight Reports". PR Newswire. July 16, 1991. "Michael Boskin, chairman of the President's Council of Economic Advisors, is listed as sharing one session with Karl Otto Pohl, president of the Deutsche Bundesbank. (Boskin refused to answer The Spotlight's inquiries about what he said). Jack F. Matlock, U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union, was also listed on a panel exploring developments in the USSR. Robert B. Zoellick, under-secretary of state designate for economic affairs was listed on still another panel, as was Thomas W. Simons, U.S. ambassador to Poland. David Rockefeller, former chairman of the Chase-Manhattan Bank and a leading Bilderberger, was reported as pushing for expanded free trade through both the Mexico and GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) negotiations now under way. John S. Reed, chairman of Citibank's parent corporation, was also on the list. Two U.S. governors, Douglas Wilder of Virginia and Bill Clinton of Arkansas are on the list with Diane Feinstein, the ex-mayor of San Francisco who lost a 1990 bid for governor of California. Sens. John Chafee (R-R.I.) and Bennett Johnston (D-La.) are on the list of the American delegation, by far the largest at Baden-Baden. Top industrialists, lawyers, and diplomats dominate the list. The only U.S. labor leader was Lynn Williams, president of the United Steelworkers of America. Arthur Dunkel, director general of GATT, which is currently shaping a completely free trade world in Geneva, and Etienne Davignon, former vice chairman of the European Community, were listed. Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands and Queen Sophia of Spainwere also on the list with the prime ministers of Belgium, Luxemburg and Netherlands and the federal chancellor of Austria. The press lords listed included Conrad Black, the Canadian publisher who recently purchased London's Daily Telegraph and the Jerusalem Post. George Ball, former undersecretary of state, was said to cause an "uproar" when he warned that a Mideast peace conference, if held, would "explode" in the present volatile political climate in that region. Harlan Cleveland, another former high State Department official, was reported to have privately urged the overthrow of the Persian Gulf monarchies as the first step toward a Mideast peace."
        13. ^ "George W. Ball Papers, 1880s-1994" (PDF). Princeton University Library. Archived from the original on 2007-06-24.
        14. ^ "Text Of Remarks By National Security Advisor Samuel R. Berger To The Bilderberg Steering Committee; "Strengthening The Bipartisan Center: An Internationalist Agenda For America"". Federal News Service. November 4, 1999.
        15. ^ a b c Are the people who 'really run the world' meeting this weekend?
        16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bilderbergers celebrate half a century of intrigue, secrecy. 20. The New American. June 28, 2004. ISSN 08856540. "Attendees from the U.S. this year reportedly included: Senators Jon Corzine (D-N.J.) and John Edwards (D-N.C.); Melinda Gates, wife of Microsoft founder Bill Gates; Donald Graham, chairman and CEO of the Washington Post Company; Richard N. Haass, president of the Council on Foreign Relations; Timothy Geithner, president of the Federal ReserveBank of New York; Douglas Feith, U.S. Undersecretary of Defense; Walter Isaacson, president and CEO of the Aspen Institute; Jessica T. Mathews, president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace; Indra K. Nooyi, president and CEO of Pepsico; Peter Weinberg, CEO of Goldman Sachs International; and James Wolfensohn, president of the World Bank.".
        17. ^ a b c Bilderberger Conspiracy
        18. ^ a b Kenneth Maxwell (2004). "The Case of the Missing Letter in Foreign Affairs:: Kissinger, Pinochet and Operation Condor". David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies. Archived from the original on 2007-03-11.
        19. ^ "Herter, Christian Archibald, 1895-1966. Papers: Guide.". Houghton Library, Harvard.
        20. ^ Aubourg, Valerie (2003). "Organizing Atlanticism: the Bilderberg group and the Atlantic institute, 1952- 1963". Intelligence and National Security 18:2: 92–105.
        21. ^ a b Hatch, Alden (1962). H.R.H.Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands: An authorized biography. London: Harrap. ISBN B0000CLLN4.
        22. ^ a b c "Western Issues Aired". The Washington Post. April 24, 1978. "The three-day 26th Bilderberg Meeting concluded at a secluded cluster of shingled buildings in what was once a farmer's field. Zbigniew Brzezinski, President Carter's national security adviser, Swedish Prime Minister Thorbjorrn Falldin, former secretary of state Henry Kissinger and NATO Commander Alexander M. Haig Jr. were among 104 North American and European leaders at the conference."
        23. ^ "The Real Aims of the Bilderberg Club". BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. April 6, 1982.
        24. ^ Jasper, William F. (July 12, 2004). Rogues' gallery of EU founders: the emerging European superstate, now moving forward under the EU, is the result of a deliberate scheme put into motion many years ago by powerful planners and plotters. 20. The New American. p. 15. ISSN 08856540. "Attendees at the founding Bilderberg meeting (1954), for example, included: David Rockefeller, global banker and later chairman of the CFR; Dean Rusk, president of the Rockefeller Foundation and later U.S. Secretary of State; Joseph E. Johnson, president of the Carnegie Endowment; C.D. Jackson, head of Time, Inc.; Gen. Walter Bedell Smith, former head of the OSS, precursor to the CIA; and Lord Dennis Healey, Labor Party leftist and later British Chancellor of the Exchequer.".
        25. ^ a b c Bill Hayton (29 September 2005). "Inside the secretive Bilderberg Group". BBC.
        26. ^ a b "Clinton; Tony and Gordon just have to work this out; The former president, who is expected to play a starring role at the Labour conference, talks to Toby Harnden about the party; its future and its leadership contest". The Spectator. September 16, 2006. p. 14. "In fact, Clinton, then governor of Arkansas and considered a rank outsider for the 1992 presidential race, first met Brown in June 1991 at the Bilderberg conference in the Black Forest resort of Baden-Baden. By all accounts, the two clicked."
        27. ^ Mark Rich (2008). Hidden Evil. ISBN 9781435750104.
        28. ^ U.S. Sen. John Edwards at Bilderberg. (06-JUN-04) UPI NewsTrack
        29. ^ The Nation: Conspiracy Theorists Unite; A Secret Conference Thought to Rule the World
        30. ^ Jackie Kucinich (May 12, 2005). "World leaders attend meeting that they won't talk about". The Hill. p. 4. "Several members of Congress have been said to be on the guest list in the past, including Sens. Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-Texas), Chris Dodd (D-Conn.), Jon Corzine (D-N.J.), Chuck Hagel (R-Neb.) and Evan Bayh (D-Ind.). Sen. John Edwards (D-N.C) took a break from the campaign trail to attend the meeting last year. Hagel's office confirmed that he had attended the conference in 1999 and 2000."
        31. ^ Christy Hoppe (Thursday, May 31, 2007), Perry off to secret forum in Turkey, The Dallas Morning News, retrieved 2009-07-21
        32. ^ a b "Why is our governor visiting this group". The Augusta Chronicle. June 19, 2008. p. 8. "Some of the names on the list are intriguing. Some of the well-known names include:Ben Bernanke - chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve System; Condoleezza Rice - U.S. secretary of state; James A. Johnson - tasked with choosing U.S. Sen. Barack Obama's running mate; Paul Wolfowitz - with the Institute for Public Policy Research. The one name that stands out in my opinion this year is South Carolina Gov. Mark Sanford."
        33. ^ Ian Aitken (May 26, 1989). The Guardian (London). "Mr Paddy Ashdown is not yet wholly at ease with the trappings of office, even if the office in question is only that of leader of the Social and Liberal Democrats. Attending the Bilderberg Conference of European political leaders in Spain last week, he was deeply impressed by the splendour of the official cars and the intensity of the security precautions laid on for his arrival. Reaching the conference headquarters at last, he sank into a chair and said to his neighbour: 'Hello, I'm Paddy Ashdown.' The neighbour smiled diffidently, put out his hand, and said: 'Hello, I'm the King of Spain.'"
        34. ^ Telegraph.co.uk Taxpayers foot bill for Ed Balls 'junket'. Daily Telegraph
        35. ^ a b c "Who pulls the strings?". The Guardian. 10 March 2001.
        36. ^ a b "Memorandum submitted by the Parliamentary Commissioner for Standards - Complaint against Mr Kenneth Clarke". United Kingdom Parliament. 11 July 1997. "Mr Clarke subsequently explained that he and Mr Blair considered that they were attending the conference as representatives of the Government and the Opposition respectively, and stated that 'I was quite confident that I was at the time meeting the rules applying to Ministers, and it did not occur to me that the new rules concerning registration could apply to this visit'."
        37. ^ House of Commons - Register of Members' Interests, Commons Publications, 2 December 1998, retrieved 2009-07-21
        38. ^ "Register of Members' Interests". 9 June 1999. "3-6 June 1999, to Portugal, to attend Bilderberg meetings. I paid for my own air fare; the hotel accommodation for three nights was paid for by the organisers."
        39. ^ "Register of Members' Interests". 21 May 2003. "15-18 May 2003, to Versailles, France, to attend a Bilderberg Conference. I paid for my own air fare; the hotel accommodation for three nights was paid for by the organisers."
        40. ^ "Register of Members' Interests". 8 June 2004. "3-6 June 2004, to Stresa, Italy, to attend Bilderberg Conference. I paid for my own air fare; the hotel accommodation for three nights was paid for by the organisers.",
        41. ^ House of Commons - Register of Members' Interests
        42. ^ Kenneth Clarke MP, Rushcliffe (TheyWorkForYou.com)
        43. ^ "Register of Members' Interests - Kenneth Clarke". United Kingdom Parliament. 16 June 2008.
        44. ^ "Kenneth Clarke:Full register of members' interests". The Guardian. "5-8 June 2008, to Chantilly, Virginia, USA, to attend Bilderberg Conference. Hotel accommodation paid for by the conference sponsors. (I paid my travel costs.) (Registered 12 June 2008)"
        45. ^ "'Atlantic world' theme for Bilderberg conference". The Times. April 19, 1974. p. 6.
        46. ^ a b [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199900/cmregmem/memi19.htm British House of Commons - Register of Journalists' Interests
        47. ^ a b c "Our man at Bilderberg". The Guardian. 19 May 2009. "Mandelson's office has confirmed his attendance at this year's meeting: "Yes, Lord Mandelson attended Bilberberg. He found it a valuable conference.""
        48. ^ a b c d e f g h John Deverell (May 31, 1996). "Vast array of international VIPs talk things over at secretive Bilderberg '96 in King City". The Toronto Star. "Lord Carrington, Conference chairman; former NATO secretary-general; Francisco Pinto Balsemao, Former prime minister of Portugal; Queen Beatrix, Netherlands; Lloyd Bentsen, Former treasury secretary, U.S.; Carl Bildt, The High Representative Sweden; Conrad Black, Chairman, Hollinger, Canada; Frits Bolkestein, Liberal party leader, Netherlands; Jean Chretien, Prime minister of Canada; Etienne Davignon, Executive chairman, Societe Generale de Belgique, Belgium; Stanley Fischer, International Monetary Fund; Charles Freeman, Former assistant secretary of defence, U.S.; Mike Harris, Premier of Ontario; Richard Holbrooke, Former assistant secretary of state, U.S.; Peter Job, Chief executive, Reuters Holding, Britain; Lionel Jospin, Socialist party leader, France; Henry Kissinger, Former U.S. secretary of state; Andrew Knight, News Corp., Britain; Winston Lord, Assistant secretary of state, U.S.; Paul Martin, Finance minister, Canada; Philippe Maystadt, Finance minister, Belgium; John Monks, Union leader, Britain; Mario Monti, European commissioner; Sam Nunn, U.S. senator; William Perry, Defence secretary, U.S.; Jan Petersen, Conservative party leader, Norway; Malcolm Rifkind, Foreign secretary, Britain; Renato Ruggiero, Director-general, World Trade Organization; Mona Sahlin, Member of parliament, Sweden; Klaus Schwab, President, World Economic Forum; Queen Sofia, Spain; George Soros, President, Soros Fund Management, U.S.; George Stephanopoulos, Senior adviser to the president, U.S.; Peter Sutherland, Former director-general, GATT and WTO, Ireland; J. Martin Taylor, Chief executive, Barclays Bank, Britain; Alex Trotman, Chairman, Ford Motor, U.S.; John Whitehead, Former deputy secretary of state, U.S.; James Wolfensohn, World Bank president."
        49. ^ a b "Register of Members' Interests - George Osborne". United Kingdom Parliament. 3 July 2007.
        50. ^ "Register of Members' Interests - George Osborne". United Kingdom Parliament. 16 June 2008.
        51. ^ "Register of Member' Interests - George Osborne". United Kingdom Parliament. 27 May 2009.
        52. ^ Ronson, Jon (10 March 2001). "Who pulls the strings? (part 3)". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-07-04. ""During the Falklands war, the British government's request for international sanctions against Argentina fell on stony ground. But at a Bilderberg meeting in, I think, Denmark, David Owen stood up and gave the most fiery speech in favour of imposing them. Well, the speech changed a lot of minds. I'm sure that various foreign ministers went back to their respective countries and told their leaders what David Owen had said. And you know what? Sanctions were imposed.""
        53. ^ "Heath asks nation to be calm, fair, responsible, constructive". The Times. April 29, 1968. p. 2. "The outstretched hand of Mr. Powell was rejected by the leader of a coloured delegation which tried to present a petition to him today at the ski lodge at Mont Tremblanc Quebec, where Mr. Powell was attending the seventeenth annual Bilderberg conference."
        54. ^ "Register of Lords Interests - Lord Roll of Ipsden". United Kingdom Parliament. 1 October 2004. Archived from the original on 2008-02-07.
        55. ^ "Twenty-fifth Bilderberg meeting held". Facts on File World News Digest. May 14, 1977. "Alec Douglas-Home, the former prime minister of Great Britain, chaired the conference, replacing Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, who had previously headed the Bilderberg invitation committee. (Prince Bernhard had resigned all public positions after the 1976 Lockheed scandal.)"
        56. ^ "News in Brief". The Times. April 26, 1975. p. 5. "Mrs Thatcher, the Conservative leader and Mr Healey, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, were among participants in the twenty second Bilderberg Conference."
        57. ^ a b "Secret Meeting Held in Cannes". The Washington Post. March 30, 1963.
        58. ^ a b c d e f g Geschiedenis: Bilderberg-conferentie 1954
        59. ^ "American Trip By M. Defferre Hope Of Meeting The President". The Times. Friday, Mar 20, 1964. p. 13. "The main purpose of M. Defferre's visit however, is to attend the annual Bilderberg Colloquy at which leaders of western thought are invited to speak their minds in the strictest secrecy."
        60. ^ Valtiovarainministeriö: Heinäluoma Bilderberg-kokouksessa Ottawassa
        61. ^ Valtiovarainministeriö: Katainen Bilderberg-kokoukseen Istanbuliin
        62. ^ a b Tiedote
        63. ^ a b c d e f g "Alþýðuflokksmaður boðinn í fyrsta sinn á Bilderbergfund". Morgunblaðið (The Morning Paper). 24 April 1993.
        64. ^ Vefur Reykjavíkurborgar - Vefur Bjarna Benediktssonar
        65. ^ a b Björn Bjarnason 13.9.2001
        66. ^ Samtíðarmenn 2003
        67. ^ Alþingi - 112. löggjafarþing, 277. fundur, fyrirspurn: greiðsla kostnaðar á fundaferðum ráðherra (Icelandic)
        68. ^ Alþingi - 100. löggjafarþing, 88. fundur, 357. mál, utanríkismál (Icelandic)
        69. ^ Wikileaks - Bilderberg meeting report Aachen, 1980
        70. ^ Alþingi - Æviágrip: Jón Sigurðsson (Icelandic)
        71. ^ Westerwelle traf Gül - EU-Beitritt im Zentrum der Gespräche (German) Free Democratic Party of Germany. 30 May 2007.
        72. ^ Sir Edward Beddington-Behrens (June 13, 1960). "Obituary - Mr. Joseph Retinger". The Times. p. 12.
        73. ^ a b c Glen Mcgregor (May 24, 2006). "Ottawa to host top-secret meeting -- or maybe not: Rumours run rampant that ultra-influential Bilderberg to come here". Ottawa Citizen. "Several Canadian political figures have spoken at Bilderbergs, including prime ministers Pierre Trudeau and Jean Chretien, New Brunswick premiers Bernard Lord and Frank McKenna, and former Ontario premier Mike Harris. Prime Minister Stephen Harper's office would not say yesterday whether he has been invited to attend the rumoured Ottawa meetings. Mr. Harper attended the 2003 conference in Versailles, France."
        74. ^ Robert Benzie (June 12, 2006). "Ontario to build nuclear reactors". The Toronto Star.
        75. ^ Svenska Dagbladet Näringsliv 2009-11-12
        76. ^ Svenska Dagbladet Näringsliv 2009-11-12
        77. ^ Svenska Dagbladet Näringsliv 2009-11-12
        78. ^ Svenska Dagbladet Näringsliv 2009-11-12
        79. ^ Svenska Dagbladet Näringsliv 2009-11-12
        80. ^ a b "Answer given by Mr Prodi on behalf of the Commission". European Parliament. 15 May 2003.
        81. ^ Valerie Aubourg (June 2003). Organizing Atlanticism: the Bilderberg Group and the Atlantic Institute 1952-63.
        82. ^ Official List of Participants for the 2009 Bilderberg Meeting
        83. ^ a b Caroline Moorehead (18 April 1977). "An exclusive club, perhaps without power, but certainly with influence: The Bilderberg group". The Times.
        84. ^ Charlie Skelton (May 18, 2009). "Our man at Bilderberg: I should be ashamed". Guardian. "He shows me another: a long-range shot of two happy globalists in an inflatable doughnut ring and Speedos, skidding about behind a powerboat. If only the image was sharper we might see Peter Mandelson snatching a chat with Jean-Claude Trichet, the president of the European Central Bank. "So how do we sell ... splooosh! ... wooo! ... the abolition of the pound to the ... sploosh! ... electorate? Again! Again! Once more round the bay!""
        85. ^ a b c d Bruno Fay's blog on Le Monde
        86. ^ Bilderberg-Mirror.org.uk
        87. ^ STLtoday - St. Louis Post-Dispatch Archives
        88. ^ Svenska Dagbladet Näringsliv 2009-11-12
        89. ^ Svenska Dagbladet Näringsliv 2009-11-12
        90. ^ "Prufrock: Rulers of the world prepare to expel Black". The Sunday Times. February 15, 2004. "The final straw came this month when Black said he would sue Henry Kissinger andRichard Perle, both directors of Hollinger and fellow Bilderbergers. Now he is going to be pressed to leave the group."
        91. ^ "Leaders' meeting exclusive, secret: Chance for relaxed discussions". Hamilton Spectator (Ontario, Canada). June 1, 1996.

        Categories: International nongovernmental organizations | Bilderberg Group | Lists of businesspeople




        George H. W. Bush


        undefined
        Young George H. W. Bush taking his first steps at his grandfather's house in Kennebunkport, Maine, circa 1925
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        Bush with President Dwight D. Eisenhower
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        Bush (far right) in the Nashua debate with Reagan (far left) and the moderator
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        Bush with President Ronald Reagan
        Bush in Nashua, New Hampshirein 1987
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        President Ronald Reagan endorses Bush in May 1988 at the President's dinner in Washington, DC; First Lady Nancy Reagan is at left and Barbara Bush on the right
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        Bush campaigns in Omaha, Nebraska, 1988
        Chief Justice William Rehnquistadministering the oath of office to Bush during Inaugural ceremonies at the United States Capitol, January 20, 1989
        George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989-1993). He was also Ronald Reagan's Vice President (1981–1989), a congressman, an ambassador, and Director of Central Intelligence.
        In office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993; His Vice President: Dan QuaylePreceded by President : Ronald Reagan Succeeded by President: Bill Clinton
        43rd Vice President of the United StatesIn office: January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989 President at the time: President Ronald Reagan;
        Preceded by: Walter Mondale Succeeded by: Dan Quayle
         11th Director of Central Intelligence In office: January 30, 1976 – January 20, 1977 President at the Time: Gerald Ford 
        Preceded by: William E. Colby  Succeeded by: Adm. Stansfield Turner
        Chief of the U.S. Liaison Office to the People's Republic of China In office: September 26, 1974 – December 7, 1975 
        President at the Time: Gerald Ford Preceded by: David K. E. Bruce Succeeded by: Thomas S. Gates, Jr.  
        48th Chairman of the Republican National Committee In office: 1971 – 1973 President at the time:  Richard Nixon  Preceded by: Charles W. Yost Succeeded by: John A. Scali
        Member of the United States House of Representatives from Texas's 7th congressional district In office January 3, 1967 – January 3, 1971
         Preceded by:John V. Dowdy Succeeded by: Bill Archer
        Born: June 12, 1924 (age 85); Birth name: George Herbert Walker Bush; Political party: RepublicanSpouse(s): Barbara Pierce Bush 
        Occupation; Businessman (oil); Military Service: Service/branch: United States Navy;Rank: Lieutenant (junior grade);  Years of : 1942–45 Unit: Fast Carrier Task Force;  

        Bush was born in Massachusetts to Senator and New York Banker Prescott Bush and Dorothy Walker Bush. Following the attacks on Pearl Harbor in 1941, at the age of 18, Bush postponed going to college and became the youngest navalaviator in the US Navy at the time.[1] He served until the end of the war, then attended Yale University. Graduating in 1948, he moved his family to West Texas and entered the oil business, becoming a millionaire by the age of 40.

        He became involved in politics soon after founding his own oil company, serving as a member of the House of Representatives, among other positions. He ran unsuccessfully for president of the United States in 1980, but was chosen by party nominee Ronald Reagan to be the vice presidential nominee; the two were subsequently elected. During his tenure, Bush headed administration task forces on deregulation and fighting drug abuse.

        In 1988, Bush launched a successful campaign to succeed Reagan as president, defeating Democratic opponentMichael DukakisForeign policy drove the Bush presidency; military operations were conducted in Panama and the Persian Gulf at a time of world change; the Berlin Wall fell in 1989 and the Soviet Union dissolved two years later. Domestically, Bush reneged on a 1988 campaign promise and after a struggle with Congress, signed an increase in taxes that Congress had passed. In the wake of economic concerns, he lost the 1992 presidential election to DemocratBill Clinton.

        Bush is the father of George W. Bush, the 43rd President of the United States, and Jeb Bush, former Governor of Florida. He is the most recent president to have been a World War II veteran, and the most recent president to have fought in a war prior to being elected.

        Early Years

         

        George Herbert Walker Bush was born at 173 Adams Street in Milton, Massachusetts[2] on June 12, 1924. The Bush family moved from Milton toGreenwich, Connecticut shortly after his birth.

        Bush began his formal education at the Greenwich Country Day School in Greenwich.[3] Beginning in 1936, he attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts,[3] where he held a large number of leadership positions including being the president of the senior class and secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, and captain of both the varsity baseball and soccer teams.[4]

        World War II

        Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Bush decided to join theUS Navy,[1] so after graduating from Phillips Academy earlier in 1942,[4] he became a naval aviator at the age of 18.[3] After completing the 10-month course, he was commissioned as an ensign in the U.S. Naval Reserve at Corpus Christi, Texas on June 9, 1943, just three days before his 19th birthday, which made him the youngest naval aviator to that date.[1]

        He was assigned to Torpedo Squadron (VT-51) as the photographic officer in September 1943.[1] The following year, his squadron was based on the USS San Jacinto as a member of Air Group 51, where his lanky physique earned him the nickname 'Skin'.[5] During this time, the task force was victorious in one of the largest air battles of World War II: the Battle of the Philippine Sea.[1]

        After Bush's promotion to Lieutenant Junior Grade on August 1, the San Jacinto commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands. Bush piloted one of four Grumman TBM Avenger aircraft from VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chichijima.[6] His crew for the mission, which occurred on September 2, 1944, included Radioman Second Class John Delaney and Lieutenant Junior Grade William White.[1] During their attack, the Avengers encountered intense anti-aircraft fire; Bush's aircraft was hit by flak[7] and his engine caught on fire.[1] Despite his plane being on fire, Bush completed his attack and released bombs over his target, scoring several damaging hits.[1] With his engine afire, Bush flew several miles from the island, where he and one other crew member on the TBM Avenger bailed out of the aircraft;[7] the other man's parachute did not open.[1] It has not been determined which man bailed out with Bush[1] as both Delaney and White were killed as a result of the battle.[7] Bush waited for four hours in an inflated raft, while several fighters circled protectively overhead until he was rescued by the lifeguard submarine USS Finback.[1] For the next month he remained on the Finback, and participated in the rescue of other pilots.

         

        Bush subsequently returned to San Jacinto in November 1944 and participated in operations in the Philippines[1] until his squadron was replaced and sent home to the United States. Through 1944, he flew 58 combat missions[7] for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, and the Presidential Unit Citation awarded to San Jacinto.[1]

        Because of his valuable combat experience, Bush was reassigned to Norfolk Navy Base and put in a training wing for new torpedo pilots. He was later assigned as a naval aviator in a new torpedo squadron, VT-153. Upon the Japanese surrender in 1945, Bush was honorably discharged in September of that year.

        Marriage and college years

        George Bush married Barbara Pierce on January 6, 1945, only weeks after his return from the Pacific. Their marriage produced six children: George Walker Bush (born 1946), Pauline Robinson Bush ("Robin", 1949–1953, died of leukemia), John Ellis "Jeb" Bush(born 1953), Neil Mallon Bush (born 1955), Marvin Pierce Bush (born 1956), and Dorothy Bush Koch (born 1959).[8]

        Bush had been accepted to Yale University prior to his enlistment in the military,[9] and took up the offer after his discharge and marriage. While at Yale, he was enrolled in an accelerated program that allowed him to graduate in two and a half years, rather than four.[9] He was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and was elected president. He also captained the Yale baseball team, and as a left-handed first baseman, played in the first two College World Series.[9] As the team captain, Bush met Babe Ruth before a game during his senior year. Late in his junior year he was, like his father Prescott Bush (1917), initiated into the Skull and Bones secret society. He graduated as a member of the Phi Beta Kappa from Yale in 1948 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics.[10]

        Oil ventures

        After graduating from Yale, Bush moved his family to West Texas. His father's business connections proved useful when he ventured into the oil business, starting as a sales clerk[11] with Dresser Industries,[12] a subsidiary of Brown Brothers Harriman. His father had served on the board of directors there for 22 years. Bush started the Bush-Overby Oil Development company in 1951[13] and co-founded the Zapata Petroleum Corporation, an oil company which drilled in the Permian Basin in Texas, two years later. He was named president of the Zapata Offshore Company, a subsidiary which specialized in offshore drilling, in 1954.[11] The subsidiary became independent in 1958, so Bush moved the company from Midland, Texas to Houston.[12] He continued serving as president of the company until 1964, and later chairman until 1966, but his ambitions turned political.[12] By that time, Bush had become a millionaire.[11]

        Political career (1964–1980)

         

        Congressional years

        Bush served as Chairman of the Republican Party for Harris County, Texas in 1964, but wanted to be more involved in policy making, so he set his stakes high: he aimed for a US Senate seat from Texas.[12] After winning the Republican primary, Bush faced his opponent, incumbent Democrat Ralph W. Yarborough. Yarborough attacked Bush as a right-wing extremist, and Bush lost the general election.[14]

        Bush did not give up on elective politics and was elected in 1966 to a House of Representatives seat from the 7th District of Texas, defeating Democrat Frank Briscoe with 57% of the vote;[15] he became the first Republican to represent Houston.[12] His voting record in the House was generally conservative:[12] Bush opposed the public accommodations contention in the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and supported open-housing legislation, something generally unpopular in his district.[12] He supported the Nixon administration's Vietnam policies, but broke with Republicans on the issue of birth control.[12] Despite being a first-term congressman, Bush was appointed to the powerful House Ways and Means Committee,[11] where he voted to abolish the military draft.[11] He was elected to a second term in 1968.[16] In 1970, Nixon convinced Bush to relinquish his House seat to again run for the Senate against Ralph Yarborough, a fierce Nixon critic. In the Republican primary, Bush easily defeated conservative Robert J. Morris, by a margin of 87.6 percent to 12.4 percent.[17]However, former Congressman Lloyd Bentsen, a more moderate Democrat and native of Mission in south Texas, defeated Yarborough in the Democratic primary.[11] Yarborough then endorsed Bentsen, who defeated Bush, 53.4 to 46.6 percent.[18] Nixon came to Texas to campaign in Longview for Bush and his gubernatorial ticket-mate, Paul Eggers, a Dallas lawyer who was a close friend of U.S. Senator John G. Tower.[19]

        1970s

        Ambassador to the United Nations

        Following his 1970 loss, Bush was well known as a prominent Republican businessman from the "Sun Belt", a group of states in the Southern part of the country.[11]Nixon noticed and appreciated the sacrifice Bush had made of his Congressional position,[12] so he appointed him Ambassador to the United Nations.[10] He was confirmed unanimously by the Senate, and served for two years, beginning in 1971.[12]

        Chairman of the Republican National Committee

        Amidst the Watergate scandal, Nixon asked Bush to become chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973.[10] Bush accepted, and held this position when the popularity of both Nixon and the Republican Party plummeted.[20] He defended Nixon steadfastly, but later as Nixon's complicity became clear, Bush focused more on defending the Republican Party, while still maintaining loyalty to Nixon.[12] As chairman, Bush formally requested that Nixon eventually resign for the good of the Republican party.[12] Nixon did this on August 9, 1974; Bush noted in his diary that "There was an aura of sadness, like somebody died... The [resignation] speech was vintage Nixon — a kick or two at the press — enormous strains. One couldn't help but look at the family and the whole thing and think of his accomplishments and then think of the shame... [ Ford's swearing-in offered] indeed a new spirit, a new lift."[21]

        Envoy to China

        Gerald Ford, Nixon's successor, appointed Bush to be Chief of the US Liaison Office in the People's Republic of China. Since the United States at the time maintained official relations with the Republic of China on Taiwan and not the People's Republic of China, the Liaison Office did not have the official status of an embassy and Bush did not formally hold the position of "ambassador", though he unofficially acted as one. The time that he spent in China — 14 months — were seen as largely beneficial for US-Chinese relations.[12] After Ford's accession to the presidency, Bush was under serious consideration for being nominated as Vice President. Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona declined to be considered and endorsed Bush, who, along with his supporters, reportedly mounted an internal campaign to get a nomination.[citation needed] Ford eventually narrowed his list to Nelson Rockefeller and Bush. However, White House Chief of Staff Donald Rumsfeld reportedly preferred Rockefeller over Bush.[22] Rockefeller was finally named and confirmed.

        Director of Central Intelligence

        In 1976, Ford brought Bush back to Washington to become Director of Central Intelligence. He served in this role for 357 days, from January 30, 1976 to January 20, 1977.[23] The CIA had been rocked by a series of revelations, including those based on investigations by Senator Frank Church's Committee regarding illegal and unauthorized activities by the CIA, and Bush was credited with helping to restore the agency's morale.[24] In his capacity as DCI, Bush gave national security briefings to Jimmy Carter both as a Presidential candidate and as President-elect, and discussed the possibility of remaining in that position in a Carter administration[25] but it was not to be.

        Other positions

        After a Democratic administration took power in 1977, Bush became chairman on the Executive Committee of the First International Bank in Houston.[26] He later spent a year as a part-time professor of Administrative Science at Rice University[27] in the Jones School of Business beginning in 1978, the year it opened; Bush said of his time there, "I loved my brief time in the world of academia."[27] Between 1977 and 1979, he was a director of the Council on Foreign Relations foreign policy organization.[28]

        1980 presidential campaign

        Bush had decided in the late 1970s that he was going to run for president in 1980;[22] in 1979, he attended 850 political events and traveled more than 250,000 miles (400,000 km) to campaign for the nation's highest office.[22] In the contest for the Republican Partynomination, Bush stressed his wide range of government experience, while competing against rivals Howard BakerBob DoleJohn Anderson (who would later run as an independent), Phil CraneJohn Connally, and the front-runner Ronald Reagan, former actor andGovernor of California.[22] In the primary election, Bush focused almost entirely on the Iowa caucuses, while Reagan ran a more traditional campaign.[22] Bush represented the centrist wing in the GOP, whereas Reagan represented conservatives. Bush famously labeled Reagan's supply side-influenced plans for massive tax cuts "voodoo economics." His strategy proved useful, to some degree, as he won in Iowa with 31.5 percent to Reagan's 29.4 percent.[22] After the win, Bush stated that his campaign was full of momentum, or "Big Mo".[22] As a result of the loss, Reagan replaced his campaign manager, reorganized his staff, and concentrated on the New Hampshire primary. The two men agreed to a debate in the state, organized by the Nashua Telegraph, but paid for by the Reagan campaign. Reagan invited the other four candidates as well, but Bush refused to debate them, and eventually they left.[22] The debate proved to be a pivotal moment in the campaign; when the moderator, John Breene, ordered Reagan's microphone turned off, his angry response, "I am paying for this microphone Mr. Greene" [sic], struck a chord with the public.[22] Bush ended up losing New Hampshire's primary with 23 percent to Reagan's 50 percent.[22] Bush lost most of the remaining primaries as well, and formally dropped out of the race in May of that year.[22] With his political future seeming dismal, Bush sold his house in Houston and bought his grandfather's estate in Kennebunkport, Maine, known as "Walker's Point."[29]At the Republican Convention, however, Reagan selected Bush as his Vice Presidential nominee, placing him on the winning Republican presidential ticket of 1980.

        Vice Presidency (1981–1989)

        As Vice President, Bush generally took on a low-profile while recognizing the constitutional limits of the office; he avoided decision-making or criticizing Reagan in any way.[22] As had become customary, he and his wife moved into the Vice President's residence at Number One Observatory Circle, about two miles from the White House. The Bushes attended a large number of public and ceremonial events in their positions, including many state funerals, which became a common joke for comedians.[22] Mrs. Bush found the funerals largely beneficial, saying, "George met with many current or future heads of state at the funerals he attended, enabling him to forge personal relationships that were important to President Reagan."[22] As the President of the Senate, Bush stayed in contact with members of Congress, and kept the president informed on occurrences on Capitol Hill.[22] On March 30, 1981, early into the administration, Reagan was shot and seriously wounded in Washington, D.C. Bush, second in command by the presidential line of succession, was in Dallas, Texas and flew back to Washington immediately. Reagan's cabinet convened in the White House Situation Room, where they discussed various issues, including the availability of the Nuclear Football. When Bush's plane landed, his aides advised him to proceed directly to the White House by helicopter, as an image of the government still functioning despite the attack.[22] Bush rejected the idea, responding, "only the president lands on the South Lawn."[22] This made a positive impression on Reagan,[22] who recovered and returned to work within two weeks. From then on, the two men would have regular Thursday lunches in the Oval Office.[22] In his position, Bush chaired a special task force on deregulation, reviewing hundreds of rules and making specific recommendations on which ones to amend or revise, in order to curb the size of the federal government.[22] The Reagan administration introduced new policies in the War on Drugs, and Bush was part of this by heading another task force, this one on international drug smuggling and federal efforts to stop the spread of drugs from entering the US.[22] Both were popular issues with conservatives, and Bush, largely a moderate, began courting them through his work.[22] Reagan and Bush ran for reelection in 1984. The Democratic opponent, Walter Mondale, made history by choosing a woman as his running mate, New York Representative Geraldine Ferraro. She and Bush squared off in a single televised Vice Presidential debate.[30] Serving as a contrast to the Ivy-League educated Bush, Ferraro represented a "blue-collar" district in Queens, New York; this, coupled with her popularity among female journalists, left Bush at a disadvantage.[22] However, the Reagan-Bush ticket won in a landslide against the Mondale-Ferraro ticket. Early into his second term as Vice President, Bush and his aides were planning a run for the presidency in 1988. By the end of 1985, a committee had been established and over two million dollars raised for Bush.[22] Bush became the first Vice President to become Acting President when, on July 13, 1985, Reagan underwent surgery to remove polyps from his colon. Bush served as Acting President for approximately eight hours. The administration was shaken by a scandal in 1986, when it was revealed that administration officials had secretly arranged weapon sales to Iran, and had used the proceeds to fund the anticommunist Contras in Nicaragua, a direct violation of the law.[22] When the Iran-Contra Affair, as it became known, broke to the media, Bush, like Reagan, stated that he had been "out of the loop" and unaware of the diversion of funds,[31] although this was later questioned.[32] Public opinion polls taken at the time indicated that the public questioned Bush's explanation of being an "innocent bystander" while the trades were occurring; this led to the notion that he was a "wimp".[22] However, his fury during an interview with CBSDan Rather largely put the "wimp" issue to rest.[22]

        As Vice President, Bush officially opened the 1987 Pan American Games in Indianapolis.

        1988 presidential campaign

        Bush had been planning a presidential run since as early as 1985,[22] and entered the Republican primary for President of the United States in October 1987. His challengers for the Republican presidential nomination included US Senator Bob Dole of Kansas, US Representative Jack Kemp of New York, former Governor Pete DuPont of Delaware, and conservative Christian televangelist Pat Robertson.

        Though considered the early frontrunner for the nomination, Bush came in third in the Iowa caucus, behind winner Dole and runner-up Robertson.[33] Much like Reagan did in 1980, Bush reorganized his staff and concentrated on the New Hampshire primary.[22] With Dole ahead in New Hampshire, Bush ran television commercials portraying the senator as a tax raiser;[34] he rebounded to win the state's primary. Bush continued seeing victory, winning many Southern primaries as well.[12] Once the multiple-state primaries such as Super Tuesday began, Bush's organizational strength and fundraising lead were impossible for the other candidates to match, and the nomination was his.[11] Leading up to the 1988 Republican National Convention, there was much speculation as to Bush's choice of running mate. Bush chose little-known US Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana, favored by conservatives.[11] Despite Reagan's popularity, Bush trailed Democratic nominee Michael Dukakis, then Governor of Massachusetts, in most polls.[35] Bush, occasionally criticized for his lack of eloquence when compared to Reagan,[22] delivered a well-received speech at the 1988 Republican National Convention.[35] Known as the "thousand points of light" speech, this described Bush's vision of America: he endorsed the Pledge of Allegianceprayer in schoolscapital punishment, gun rights, and his opposition to abortion.[35] The speech at the convention included Bush's famous pledge: "Read my lips: no new taxes".[36] The general election campaign between the two men has been described as one of the nastiest in modern times.[36] Bush blamed Dukakis for polluting the Boston Harbor as the Massachusetts governor.[12] Bush also pointed out that Dukakis was opposed to the law that would require all students to say the Pledge of Allegiance,[11] a topic well covered in Bush's nomination acceptance speech.[35] Dukakis's unconditional opposition to capital punishment led to a pointed question during the presidential debates. ModeratorBernard Shaw asked Dukakis hypothetically if Dukakis would support the death penalty if his wife, Kitty, were raped and murdered.[37] Dukakis's response of no, as well as the Willie Horton ad, contributed toward Bush's characterization of him as "soft on crime."[12] Bush defeated Dukakis and his running mate, Lloyd Bentsen, in the Electoral College, by 426 to 111 (Bentsen received one vote from a faithless elector).[36] In the nationwide popular vote, Bush took 53.4 percent of the ballots cast[12] while Dukakis received 45.6 percent. Bush became the first serving Vice President to be elected President since Martin Van Buren in 1836[22] as well as the first person to succeed someone from his own party to the Presidency via election to the office in his own right since Herbert Hoover in 1933.

        Presidency (1989–1993)

        Bush was inaugurated on January 20, 1989, succeeding Ronald Reagan. He entered office at a period of change in the world; the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of Soviet Union came early in his presidency.[38] He ordered military operations in Panama and the Persian Gulf[38] and, at one point, was recorded as having a record-high approval rating of 89 percent.[39] However, economic recession and breaking his "no new taxes" pledge caused a sharp decline in his approval rating, and Bush was defeated in the 1992 election.[38] In his Inaugural Address, Bush said: I come before you and assume the Presidency at a moment rich with promise. We live in a peaceful, prosperous time, but we can make it better. For a new breeze is blowing, and a world refreshed by freedom seems reborn; for in man's heart, if not in fact, the day of the dictator is over. The totalitarian era is passing, its old ideas blown away like leaves from an ancient, lifeless tree. A new breeze is blowing, and a nation refreshed by freedom stands ready to push on. There is new ground to be broken, and new action to be taken.[40]



        Presidency of George W. Bush

        43rd President of the United States
        In office: January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009:
        Vice President Dick Cheney
        Preceded by: Bill Clinton  Succeeded by: Barack Obama  Born: July 6, 1946 (age 63); New HavenConnecticutPolitical party: Republican  Spouse(s): Laura Bush
        Residence: Crawford, Texas; Occupation:well known publicly as a failed  Businessman (OilBaseball), and a drunk, womaniser and gambler: President of the United States
        Religion: United Methodist  Signature: undefined

        The Presidency of George W. Bush began on his inauguration on January 20, 2001 as the 43rd President of the United States of America. The oldest son of former president George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush was elected president in the2000 general election, thus becoming the second second-generation president (after John Quincy Adams), succeeding his father after just one other president, and with just two terms between them. The Supreme Court's decision in Bush v. Goreeffectively resolved the 2000 presidential election in favor of Bush by allowing the Florida Secretary of State's previous certification of Bush as the winner of Florida's electoral votes to stand. Florida's 25 electoral votes gave Bush, theRepublican candidate, 271 electoral votes, defeating Democratic candidate Al Gore in a close and controversial election. Bush was re-elected in 2004, and his term ended on January 20, 2009. As president, Bush pushed through a $1.3 trillion tax cut program and the No Child Left Behind Act, and also pushed forsocially conservative efforts such as the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act and faith-based welfare initiatives. Nearly 8 millionimmigrants came to the United States from 2000 to 2005 – more than in any other five-year period in the nation's history.[1]Almost half entered illegally.[2] After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, Bush declared a global War on Terrorism and, in October 2001, ordered an invasion of Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban, destroy Al-Qaeda, and to capture Osama bin Laden. In March 2003, Bush received a mandate from the U.S. Congress to lead an invasion of Iraq, asserting that Iraq was in violation of UN Security Council Resolution 1441.[3] Bush also initiated an AIDS program that committed $15 billion to combat AIDS over five years and is credited for saving millions of lives.[4] His record as a humanitarian can also be tied to help enroll as many as 29 million of Africa's poorest children in schools.[5] Unfortunately, some of Bush's humanitarian efforts failed to address larger picture items, such as with his AIDS fight, stressed only abstinence.[6] On his second full day in office, Bush implemented the Mexico City Policy; this policy required any non-governmental organization receiving US Government funding to refrain from performing or promoting abortion services in other countries.[7] Also in 2002, President Bush withdrew funding from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), a key player in promoting family planning in the developing world.[8] Running as a self-described "war president" in the midst of the Iraq War,[9] Bush won re-election in 2004,[10] as hiscampaign against Senator John Kerry was successful despite controversy over Bush's prosecution of the Iraq War and his handling of the economy.[11][12] His second term was highlighted by several free trade agreements, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 alongside a strong push for offshore and domestic drilling, the nominations of Supreme Court Justices John Roberts and Samuel Alito, a push forSocial Security and immigration reform, a surge of troops in Iraq, which was followed by a drop in violence, and several different economic initiatives aimed at preventing a banking system collapse, stopping foreclosures, and stimulating the economy during the recession.[13][14][15][16][17]

        After his re-election, Bush received increasingly heated criticism, even from former allies. His worldwide and domestic popularity decreased[18] due to the war and other issues such as the federal response to Hurricane Katrina, the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy, record budget deficits affecting the administration, and the 2008 subprime mortgage crisis. As president, Bush received some of the highest approval ratings in American history as well as some of the lowest, and he left office as one of the most unpopular Presidents in history.[19][20] Bush's Cabinet had included figures that were prominent in past administrations, notably former Secretary of State Colin Powell, who had served as United States National Security Advisor under Ronald Reagan. Former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld had served as White House Chief of Staff and Secretary of Defense under Gerald Ford; Rumsfeld's successor, Robert Gates, served as Director of Central Intelligence under George H.W. Bush. Vice President Dick Cheney served as Secretary of Defense under George H. W. Bush.Bush placed a high value on personal loyalty and, as a result, his administration had high message discipline. He maintained a "hands-off" style of management. "I'm confident in my management style. I'm a delegator because I trust the people I've asked to join the team. I'm willing to delegate. That makes it easier to be President," he said in an interview with Diane Sawyer on ABC in December 2003. Critics allege, however, that Bush is willing to overlook mistakes[34] made by loyal subordinates.There was only one non-Republican in Bush's cabinet: Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta, the first Asian American cabinet secretary, who had previously served as Secretary of Commerce under Bill Clinton, is a Democrat. Mineta resigned from Bush's cabinet on July 7, 2006 to pursue "other challenges".[35] Mary Peters, a Republican, was nominated and confirmed to succeed him as Transportation Secretary. At least one other non-Republican was apparently offered a position in the administration but declined. CNN reported that in the transition to his second term, Bush offered the positions of Ambassador to the United Nations and subsequently Secretary of Homeland Security to Senator Joe Lieberman, then a Democrat and currently an "Independent Democrat".[citation neededIn 2006, Bush replaced long-time chief of staff Andrew Card with Joshua Bolten and made major staff and cabinet changes with the intention of revitalizing his Administration.[36]On November 8, 2006 (the day after the Democrats took back Congress in the midterm elections), Bush announced plans to replace Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld with former CIA Director Robert Gates. Gates was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 6 and took office as the 22nd Secretary of Defense on December 18.[37] 

        undefined

        Cabinet meeting
        Attorney General: Bush's first Attorney GeneralJohn Ashcroft, was politically controversial, but widely viewed as competent. Ashcroft resigned days after Bush's 2004 re-election. Bush's second Attorney General was Alberto Gonzales. In addition to his work on providing guidelines for detainee interrogation methods prior to his appointment,[38][39] he claimed there was no right to Habeas Corpus.[40] Michael Mukaseysucceeded Gonzales and was the country's 81st Attorney General.
        Labor: Bush's first nomination for Secretary of Labor was Linda Chavez. This nomination came under attack when evidence came to light that she had given money to an illegal immigrant from Guatemala who lived in her home. Chavez claimed that the woman was not an employee and she had merely provided her with emergency assistance due to the domestic abuse the woman had been facing at the time.[41] Chavez's nomination was withdrawn. 

        Energy: ush's first Secretary of Energy, Spencer Abraham, was controversial at the time of his 2001 appointment because as a senator he co-sponsored S.896, a bill to abolish the United States Department of Energy, in 1999.[42] Samuel Wright Bodman IIISc.D. is the United States Secretary of Energy and was previously Deputy Secretary of the U.S. Treasury Department.

        Homeland Security:When Tom Ridge announced his decision to resign as Secretary of Homeland Security, Bush's first choice to replace him was Bernard Kerik, who served as Police Commissioner of the City of New York during the September 11, 2001 attacks. Kerik's nomination raised controversy when it was discovered that he had previously hired an undocumented worker as a nanny and housekeeper. After a week, Kerik pulled his nomination and Bush went on to nominate Michael Chertoff.[43]

        Advisors and other officials: 

        [edit]Defence force nominations and appointments

        [edit]Supreme Court nominations and appointments

        Bush nominated the following people to the Supreme Court of the United States: